39 terms

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Food Foragers
Hunt, fish, and gather wild plants
Food Producers
Create and manage their own food supplies
Carrying Capacity
Number of people that a given piece of land can support at a given time
Egalitarian
Nobody is better than anyone else, everyone is mostly socially equal
Pastoralists
Breed and manage domesticated herd
Horticulturalists
Cultivation with simple hand toolds
Intensive Agriculturalists
Cultivation using complex technologies
Social Stratification
Differentiation among people
Politics
The means through which society creates and maintains social order
Power
The ability of individuals to impose their will upon others
Authority
Socially approved use of power
Band
A small, loosely organized, kin ordered group that inhabits a specific territory
Ex: hunter gatherers
Tribe
A range of kin ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose members share a common ancestry, identity, culture or language
Chiefdom
Regional polity in which two or more groups are organized under a single chief who is at the center of a ranked hierarchy of people
State
A centralized political system that has a monopoly on the legitimate use of force within it's territorial boundaries
Ego
Central person in the diagram
Patrilineal
Trace descent through the father's line
Matrilineal
Trace descent through the mother's line
Clan
Unilineal group that claims a common ancestor but cannot specify him/her
Bilateral
Trace through both parents equally
Ambilineal
Can trace through either side
Double Descent
Trace through both sides BUT for different purposes
Avunculocal
New family lives with husband's mother's brother; in matrilineal societies
Family
Social and economic unit, consisting minimally of one or more parents and their children
Matrifocal Family
Mother and her kids
Nuclear Family
Mother, father and kids
Marriage
Basic unit of the family; socially approved sexual and economic union
Sexual Division of Labor
Cooperation of jobs between couple to survive; minimizing sexual competition
Levirate
If husband dies, wife is expected to marry his brother
Sororate
If wife dies, husband is expected to marry her sister
Dowry
Dad paying to get rid of daughter
Bride Price
Husband owes stuff to bride's family
Sex
Refers to the "biological" difference between men and women; male and female
Gender
Refers to the "social" interpretation of sex differences; masculine and feminine
Gender Plasticity
Gender can change
Archetypes
Typical roles
Man the Hunter
Men did all of the hunting and fed the women and children
Gender Hierarchy
Members of one gender have more power than those of the other; Patriarchy and Matriarchy
Sexual Dimorphism
Each sex takes a different physical form within a species