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Food Foragers

Hunt, fish, and gather wild plants

Food Producers

Create and manage their own food supplies

Carrying Capacity

Number of people that a given piece of land can support at a given time


Nobody is better than anyone else, everyone is mostly socially equal


Breed and manage domesticated herd


Cultivation with simple hand toolds

Intensive Agriculturalists

Cultivation using complex technologies

Social Stratification

Differentiation among people


The means through which society creates and maintains social order


The ability of individuals to impose their will upon others


Socially approved use of power


A small, loosely organized, kin ordered group that inhabits a specific territory
Ex: hunter gatherers


A range of kin ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose members share a common ancestry, identity, culture or language


Regional polity in which two or more groups are organized under a single chief who is at the center of a ranked hierarchy of people


A centralized political system that has a monopoly on the legitimate use of force within it's territorial boundaries


Central person in the diagram


Trace descent through the father's line


Trace descent through the mother's line


Unilineal group that claims a common ancestor but cannot specify him/her


Trace through both parents equally


Can trace through either side

Double Descent

Trace through both sides BUT for different purposes


New family lives with husband's mother's brother; in matrilineal societies


Social and economic unit, consisting minimally of one or more parents and their children

Matrifocal Family

Mother and her kids

Nuclear Family

Mother, father and kids


Basic unit of the family; socially approved sexual and economic union

Sexual Division of Labor

Cooperation of jobs between couple to survive; minimizing sexual competition


If husband dies, wife is expected to marry his brother


If wife dies, husband is expected to marry her sister


Dad paying to get rid of daughter

Bride Price

Husband owes stuff to bride's family


Refers to the "biological" difference between men and women; male and female


Refers to the "social" interpretation of sex differences; masculine and feminine

Gender Plasticity

Gender can change


Typical roles

Man the Hunter

Men did all of the hunting and fed the women and children

Gender Hierarchy

Members of one gender have more power than those of the other; Patriarchy and Matriarchy

Sexual Dimorphism

Each sex takes a different physical form within a species

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