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30 terms

chapter 2

STUDY
PLAY
causal logic
the relationship between a condition or variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to the other
code of ethics
the standards of acceptable behavior developed by and for members of a profession
content analysis
the systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale
control group
the subjects in an experiment who are not introduced variable by the researcher
control variable
a factor that is held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable
correlation
a relationship between two variables in which a change in one coincides with a change in the other
cross-tabulation
a table that shows the relationship between two or more variables
dependent variable
the variable in a causal relationship that is subject to the influence of another variable
ethnography
the study of an entire social setting through extended systematic observation
experiment
an artificially created situation that allows a researcher to manipulate variables
experimental group
the subjects in an experiment who are exposed to an independent variable introduced by a researcher
hawthorne effect
the unintended influence that observers of experiments can have on their sujects
hypothesis
a speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
independent variable
the variable in a causal relationship that causes of influences a change in a second variable
interview
a face-to-face or telephone questioning of a respondent to obtain desired information
mean
a number calculated by adding a series of values and then dividing by the number of values
median
the midpoint or number that divides a series of values into two groups of equal numbers of values
mode
the single most common value in a series of scores
observation
a research technique in which an investigator collects information through direct participation and/or by closely watching a group or community
operational definition
an explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to assess the concept
qualitative research
research that relies on what is seen in field or naturalistic settings more than on statistical data
quantitative research
research that collects and reports data primarily in numerical form
questionnaire
a printed or written form used to obtain information from a respondent
random sample
a sample for which every member of an entire population has the same chance of being selected
reliability
the extent to which a measure produces consistent results
research design
a detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically
sample
a selection from a larger population that is statistically representative of that population
secondary analysis
a variety of research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible information and data
value neutrality
Max Weber's term for objectivity of sociologists in the interpretation of data
variable
a measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions