11 terms

Dulwich B3 Russia October Revolution 1917

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Provisional Government
This was a committee formed from the members of the Fourth Duma in March, 1917. The members were mostly liberals at first. Some moderate socialists would join in July. They attempted to rule Russia from March-November 1917. They knew they had not been elected to their positions, so they saw themselves as temporary caretakers keeping things going while they organized elections for a "constituent assembly". They avoided many major decisions for this reason. They were overthrown by the Bolsheviks in November 1917.
Lvov
A liberal nobleman who was the first leader of the Provisional government. He was replaced by Kerensky in July.
Petrograd Soviet
This was formed in March 1917. It was composed of various socialist parties, as well as representatives from the soldiers and the various factories in the Petrograd area. They claimed to speak for all the workers and peasants of Russia. Although they said they were prepared to cooperate with the Provisional government, they undermined them by their presence and by measures like "Order Number 1".
Kerensky
A Social Revolutionary who was an exceptional speaker. He was a popular member of the Fourth Duma and became Minister of Justice in the Provisional government in March 1917. He was also a member of the Petrograd Soviet. In July of 1917 he became Prime Minister, but his popularity was damaged by the Kornilov affair and he was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in November 1917.
Order # 1
This was issued by the Petrograd Soviet in March of 1917. It asserted that the armed forces should consider themselves to serve the Petrograd Soviet, not the Provisional Government. Orders from the Provisional Government were only to be obeyed if they did not contradict the Soviet. It ordered soldiers and sailors to form committees to discuss which orders they would obey. They were also to take control of all weapons and not let officers have them even if ordered to do so. This order made it impossible for the Provisional Government to use the army against the Soviet, but it also completely destroyed discipline in the army, making it impossible for it to be effective in the war.
Return of Lenin
This happened in April of 1917. He had been living in exile in Switzerland when the March Revolution broke out. The Germans provided him with a sealed train to take him across their territory in the hope that he would cause enough trouble in Russia to get Russia to drop out of the war. Immediately upon arrival, he called for "Peace, Land, Bread", No cooperation with the Provisional Government, and "All Power to the Soviets". Previously, the Bolsheviks in the Soviet had been working with the Provisional government, so this was a change of policy.
April Theses
The name given to the policies articulated by Lenin in a speech on his arrival in Petrograd in 1917. He called for:
• Peace
• Land
• Bread
• No cooperation with the Provisional Government
• All Power to the Soviets
Previously, the Bolsheviks had been working with the Provisional government, so this speech represented a change in policy.
July Days
A huge demonstration and riot on the streets of Petrograd on July 16-17, 1917. Kerensky had just launched a disastrous offensive in the war. Soldiers, sailors and workers poured into the streets demanding an end to the war. Because the Bolsheviks were the only anti-war party, they called on the Bolsheviks to take power. The Bolsheviks were not yet ready. Troops suppressed the protests and Lenin had to flee to Finland to avoid arrest as a German agent.
Kornilov
This man was appointed Commander in Chief of the army by Kerensky in 1917. In August, he marched on Petrograd with the aim of suppressing the Soviet. Kerensky declared that it was an attempted coup. He distributed rifles to the Bolshevik Red Guards so they could help fight off the army. This man was stopped by railway workers who refused to carry the soldiers and by activists who convinced his soldiers not to fight. The whole incident strengthened the Bolsheviks militarily and politically and damaged Kerensky's reputation.
Red Guard
The name of the Bolsheviks' militia - groups of workers who trained secretly throughout 1917 with the aim of seizing power. Kerensky obligingly provided them with weapons in August of 1917 during the Kornilov Affair. On the night of November 6-7, they took over key points in Petrograd, thus securing power for the Bolsheviks.
Trotsky
Originally a Menshevik, this man joined the Bolsheviks in 1917. In October, He as the one who persuaded Lenin that the Bolsheviks should wait to seize power until the night before the All-Russian Congress of Soviets met. He was in charge of the Military Revolutionary Committee of the party and he did the bulk of the planning of the November Revolution. He presided over the meeting of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets on November 7 and announced that the Bolsheviks had taken over. During the Civil War, he was in charge of the Red Army. After Lenin's death, he was forced into exile by Stalin. in 1940 a Stalinist agent in Mexico killed him with an ice pick.