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Peace of Augsburg
a 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler (Catholic or Protestant) ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Edict of Nantes
a 1598 declaration in which the French King Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities
1884-1885 Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium.
Treaty of Nanking
Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain.
Congress of Berlin
(1878) Assembly of representatives from Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire. Meeting was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans - led to greater nationalism. Austria/Hungary got Bosnia.
Treaty of Chaumont
It provided for the restoration of the Bourbons to the French throne and the contraction of France to its frontiers of 1792. Established the Quadruple Alliance.
Concordat of Bologna
1516 - Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots.
Congress of Vienna
1814-1815, Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order and establish a plan for a new balance of power after the defeat of Napoleon.
The first freely elected parliament in Germany. It's existence can be attributed to the 'March Revolution'
Reform Bill of 1832
Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain.
Peace of Paris
(1763) britain receives: all french land in us, spain receives: florida, louisiana, and all french land w. of mississippi river. Ends 7 years war
Peace of Westphalia
(1648)This was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War that recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities. Calvinism became legal
Peace of Utrecht
(1713) Ended Louis XIV's attempts to gain military power and land. Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
Treaty of Maastricht
(1991) Created the European Union, a more formal economic, political, and social alliance. it created the Euro, the common currency of nearly all EU member nations. A first step toward what Winston Churchill called the United States of Europe.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
(1917) treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
This was the treaty that ended the War of Austrian Succession by giving the Prussians land, taking land away from Maria Theresa, but still allowing her to rule
Treaty of Versailles
(1919) Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
The Pragmatic Sanction
The document that guaranteed the right of Maria Theresa to ascend to the throne of Austria, but which was challenged in 1740 by Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia.
The Helsinki Accords
1975. It was an example of reduced tensions between the superpowers. It recognized all the borders established in Europe since the end of WWII and it acknowledged the Soviet sphere of influence. It also committed signatory powers to recognize and protect human rights of their citizens. Signed by US, Canada, and all European nations.
The Treaty of Rome
1957. It created the European Economic Community/ Common Market (EEC). It eliminated customs barriers and created a large free-trade area. France, West Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg and Italy signed.
North Atlantic Pact
(1949) Established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to coordinate the defense of its members. Implemented Harry Truman's policy of containing the Soviet Union. Forced its headquarters from Paris to Brussels when Charles de Gaulle withdrew French forces from the "American-controlled" NATO.
The Kellogg-Briand Pact
1928, also called Pact of Paris, signed by 15 nations, pledge never to use war again, accepted by 60-plus countries, failed, no effect on wars
The Locarno Pact
1925. It was between Germany (Gustav Stresemann) and France (aristide Briand) and it guaranteed Germany's new western borders with France and Belgium. They believed it was the new era of European peace.
The Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
(1939) Created a nonaggression agreement in which Hitler and Joseph Stalin promised to remain neutral if the other became involved in a war. Divided eastern Europe into German and Soviet zones.
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