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all words are symbols, but not all symbols are words


words in non-verbal emblems (no question as to what it means)


correspond to visual communication

symbols have

literal, figurative and emotional meaning


study of signs


anything that stands for anything else. sign=signifier + signified


word, image, object


the meaning

invisible aspects of communication

meaning, subjectivity, how we learn the meaning

nature of perception

learned and culture bound, backward looking-rely on past, selective, value-laden, relative

elements that enhance perception

violate expectations, novel, unique, contrast, repeated, incongruous, alter point of view

influences on perception

biology, personal, socio-cultural

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