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the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments


a group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single cell or individual by some kind of asexual reproduction


circular DNA molecule found in bacteria

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene.

DNA fingerprinting

analysis of fragments of DNA as a form of identification

recombinant DNA

DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources


the field of study that applies science to matters of legal interest

restriction enzymes

enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides

gel electrophoresis

technique for sorting molecules or fragments of molecules by length

selective breeding

The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation

gene therapy

a technique that places a gene into a cell to correct a hereditary disease or to improve the genome


term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms


the complete genetic material contained in an individual

genetically modified organisms

An organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means; also known as a transgenic organism


(genetics) the act of mixing different species or varieties of animals or plants and thus to produce hybrids


continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to maintain the desired characteristics of a line of organisms

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