wgu c179 ch.1
Terms in this set (80)
Define Systems Thinking
- the ability to model the components of the system,
-to connect the inputs and outputs among those components into a sensible whole,
-that reflects the structure and dynamics of the phenomenon.
- making a reasoned analysis of an opportunity
-envisioning potential solutions,
- evaluating those possibilities
- developing the most promising possibilities consistent with the resources that you have.
Define Tradable Job
A job that is not dependent on a particular location (can be outsourced overseas)
What is MIS
- Management information systems
- the management and use of information systems that help organizations achieve their strategies
group of components that interact to achieve some purpose.
What are the components of the Five Component Framework
What are the "actors" in the Five Components model?
What are the "instructions" in the Five Components model?
What is the "bridge" in the Five Components model?
What direction does "automation" move in the Five Components model?
- automation moves from the human side to the computer side
What direction does the "increasing degree of difficulty to change" move in the Five Components model?
- The increasing degree of difficulty to change moves from the Hardware side to the People side
What does Information Technology refer to?
- products, methods, inventions, and standards that are used for the purpose of producing information.
What does Information Systems refer to?
- the assembly of hardware, software, data, procedures, and people that produces information.
What are three common definitions of Information?
- knowledge derived from data
- data presented in a meaningful context
- data processed by summing, ordering averaging, grouping, comparing, or other similar operations.
What are the characteristics required for "Good" information?
- Just sufficient
- Worth its cost
Define Moore's Law
The number of transistors per square inch on an integrated chip doubles every 18 months
What is the defining characteristic of information systems?
comprised of components that interact to produce information
Fear of failure is the biggest threat to which kind of nonroutine cognitive skill?
According to a RAND study, what are the most important marketable skills in the new millennium?
strong nonroutine cognitive skills
What type of information is often useful for lower-level managers who oversee a floor-level department?
Changing the _____________ component of the Five -Component system would present the LEAST amount of organizational disruption.
combination of hardware, software, and data components that accomplish a set of requirements.
Define Business Process
a network of activities, repositories, roles, resources, and flows that interact to accomplish a business function
collections of related tasks that receive inputs and produce outputs
- a collection of something
- inventory = physical repository
- database = data repository
- collection of activities
- people or computer applications that are assigned to roles
What are the two types of Flow
- Control Flow: directs the order of activities
- Data Flow: shows the movement of data among activities and repositories
What is BPM
- business process management
- cyclical process for systematically creating, assessing, and altering business processes
What is an As-Is Model?
- first step of business process management
- model of the existing business process
What are two common ways of adding resources to a process?
- assign more people to process activities
- create or modify information systems
How can business processes be improved?
- changing the structure of the process
- adding resources
What are the four stages of BPM?
- Model processes
- Create components
- Implement processes
- Assess results
What is the OMG and what did they do?
- Object Management Group
- created a standard set of terms and graphical notations for documenting business processes.
- standard is called the Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN)
What is SDLC?
Systems development life cycle
What are the five phases of SDLC?
1. Define system
2. Determine requirements
3. Design system components
4. Implement system
5. Maintain system
What are the four dimensions of feasibility?
What are the benefits of a prototype?
- provides direct experience
- allows users to assess usability and remember features and functions they have forgotten to mention
- provide evidence to assess the system's technical and organizational feasibility
- provide data that can be used to estimate both development and operational costs
Define parallel installation
the new system/business processes run in parallel with the old one until the new system is tested and fully operational.
- expensive because the organization incurs the costs of running both the existing and the new system/business processes.
What are the four installation types?
What three variables does a "trade-off" balance?
Define diseconomies of scale
adding more resources creates inefficiencies
What is Brooks' Law
Adding more people to a late project makes it later
Define Configuration Control
set of management policies, practices, and tools that developers use to maintain control over the project's resources
What is the central idea of BPD?
- businesses should develop new processes that integrate the activities involved in the value chain
A company's database is an example of a _____________________ ?
Resources at rest refers to a company's ______________________ ?
In a manufacturing business scenario, the ______________________ process transforms cash into a raw material inventory, and the ____________________ process transforms finished goods into cash.
materials ordering; sales
According to the five-component model of information systems, when a business process is automated, what occurs?
Some work form the human side is moved over to the computer side.
When you bring a purchase to the cashier in a store, the act of the cashier processing a credit card payment is an example of which component of an information system?
What is the purpose of notation of documenting processes?
- to allow a team to discuss proposed and current porcesses
Define Competitive Strategy
determines an organization's goals and objectives
What is the term for a process within a single department?
What is the term for activities among several business departments?
Businesses are LEAST LIKELY to experience crisis if they ________________?
- plan to develop and modify business practices using business process management
A process model is defined as a network of data flow and activities that ______________________ ?
shows the links between them
What is a disadvantage of business process engineering?
It might be difficult and expensive to implement
What is Porter's Five Forces Model?
- Bargaining power of customers
- Threat of substitutions
- Bargaining power of suppliers
- Threat of new entrants
What are Porter's Four Competitive Strategies?
- Cost/Industry-wide: lowest cost across the industry
- Cost/Focus: lowest cost within an industry segment
- Differentiation/Industry-wide: better product/service across the industry
- Differentiation/Focus: better product/service within an industry segment
What is a "cost leader" strategy?
business activities are developed to provide essential functions at the lowest possible cost
- the amount of money that a customer is willing to pay for a resource, product, or service
Define Value Chain
- a network of value-creating activities
What are the five primary activities of the value chain?
- inbound logistics
- outbound logistics
- sales and marketing
- customer service
What are linkages?
interactions across value activities
What is a Business Process
- a network of activities that generate value by transforming inputs into outputs
What is the sequence of events a company should take?
1. Examine industry structure
2. develop competitive strategy
3. determine value chains
4. create business process
5. design information system
Porter's five forces model states that the intensity of the competitive forces determines the _________________ of the industry.
Define Systems Development
- the process of creating and maintaining information systems.
What is involved with creating data models?
- interviewing users and understanding their view of business activities
During which phase of the SDLC is the project plan made?
- system definition
Define Rapid Application Development
- the process of creating workable systems in a very short period of time
Structured methodologies cannot handle _______________________ ?
separation of data and processes
What is a drawback to extreme programming?
- programmers and end users do not communicate
What are the four basic development activities in XP?
Systems life cycle, prototyping, and end-user development are all ____________ approaches.
A decentralized organization requires ____________________ information systems; a centralized organization needs highly ______________________ information systems.
Which group protects data and information assets by establishing data standards and management practices and policies?
occurs when someone deceives by pretending to be someone else
when computer criminals invade a computer system and replace legitimate programs with their own, unauthorized ones that shut down legitimate applications and substitute their own processing to spy
Gramm-Leach-Bliley (GLB) Act
(1999) protects consumer financial data stored by financial institutions