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Theories of Personality Final

Theories of Personality by Fiest Chapter 10-18 multiple choice and true&false only
As a young man, Maslow experienced a fortuitous event that changed his life. This event happened when he
first kissed his cousin Bertha Goodman.
Maslow regarded his mother as
none of these
During childhood and adolescence, Maslow was
shy and socially backward
In his theory of motivation, Maslow assumed that
people are continually motivated by one need or another.
Maslow's concept of hierarchy of needs assumes that
lower needs have prepotency over higher needs.
During his early professional career, Maslow was influenced mostly by
Harry Harlow
Maslow said that basic anxiety is experienced when people
fail to satisfy safety needs.
Feelings of self-worth, confidence, and competence were considered by Maslow to be
esteem needs
According to Maslow, neurotic needs are activated
whether or not they are satisfied.
With regard to needs, which one of these statements would Maslow endorse?
the order of needs may be reversed in certain cases
According to Maslow
A) some behavior is not motivated
B) all behavior has a cause
*C) both of these (A & B)
Maslow believed that people who fail to satisfy self-actualization needs
suffer from metapathology
According to Maslow, metamotivation
represents the motives of self-actualizing people.
Which of the following was NOT listed by Maslow as a characteristic of self-actualizing people?
Maslow said that self-actualizing people
experienced a more efficient perception of reality
Maslow called B-love
love for the essence of another person
Maslow insisted that scientists should
be willing to resacralize science
(Maslow) Bauer and McAdams found that older participants, compared with college students, tended to report needs of
instrinsic goals
Maslow assumed that people in different cultures have basically different needs
Maslow believed that people are continually conscious of their motives
Needs on hierarchy can occasionally be reversed, according to Maslow
According to Maslow, all behavior is motivated
Maslow believed that all people have the potential for self-actualization but most people never achieve it
Maslow's theory rates low on it's ability to organize knowledge
At the height of his career, Rogers engaged in a series of debates with
B.F. Skinner
As a young boy, Rogers
was shy and frequently teased by his older brothers and sisters
Rogers described the formative tendency as a tendency for
matter to evolve from simpler to more complex form
Rogers believed that all behavior relates to one's
actualizing tendency
(Rogers) Healthy people evaluate their experiences as good or bad according to this criterion.
the actualizing tendency
In Rogerian theory, the actualization tendency
refers to the person's organismic experience
Inner tension arises, Rogers said, when a conflict exists between the
self-actualization tendency and the organismic self.
(Rogers) Taylor's parents praise her whenever her behavior mets with their standards. However, they punish Taylor when her behavior fails to meed with their approval. From this information it appears that Taylor is experiencing
conditions of worth
(Rogers) Tyler has a negative view of himself. To increase his self-concept, his parents and teachers continually praise and compliment him. Rogers believed that such praise and compliments are most likely to
be distorted by tyler.
According to Rogers, the two basic human needs are
maintenance and enhancement
Rogers believed that for psychologically healthy individuals
the self and experience are congruent
Which statement is consistent with Rogers' theory
Once achieved, self regard can exist independently of others' opinions and attitudes
(Rogers) An unawareness of a discrepancy between self experience leads to
According to Rogers, the two primary defensive strategies are
denial and distortion
Rogers believed that a person with a disorganized personality may at times behave consistently with organismic experience, and at other times consistently with
the shattered self-concept
Rogers hypothesized that empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence are
necessary and sufficient conditions for therapy
(Rogers) in the Chicago studies,
clients who received no therapy received no psychological growth
(Rogers)Clients are better able to listen to themselves when the therapist possesses
empathy for them
Rogers hypothesized that persons of tomorrow would
be open to experience
In the Chicago studies, Rogers and his associates found that
clients who received client centered therapy improved, but they did not reach an "average" level of psychological functioning
Which statement is most consistent with Rogers' concept of humanity
People have a natural tendency to move toward actualization
Carl Rogers' parents were teachers, and they encouraged him to become a teacher
Rogers' theory of personality grew out of his experiences as a psychotherapist
Rogers' approach to psychotherapy is most accurately called non-directive
As a schoolboy, Rogers became interested in scientific farming, an interest that contributed to his later research abilities
After receiving his PhD, Rogers spent more than 10 years in clinical practice, mostly isolated from the academic community, and this isolation helped him develop an approach to therapy that was unique
According to Rogers, all living organisms possess the actualizing tendency
(Rogers) Once the self-concept is formed, change becomes difficult
(Rogers) Self-actualization is a subsystem of the actualizing tendency
In Rogerian theory, the actualizing tendency refers to the person's organismic or physiological experiences.
Rogers believed that healthy people adjust their organismic self in order to make it congruent with their ideal self.
(Rogers) Receiving praise or compliments can be threatening to a person's self-concept
(Rogers) Maintenance needs include the need to resist change
(Rogers) After people have established unconditional positive self-regard, they no longer depend on others for unconditional positive regard
According to Rogers, people with low self-worth and who receive positive external evaluations will assimilate these evaluations into their self-concept and will thus grow toward psychological health
According to Rogers, a vulnerable person is unaware of the discrepancy between self and experience.
Rogers was more interested in building a theory than in conducting psychotherapy
The three necessary conditions for therapeutic growth, Rogers believed, are counselor congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathetic listening.
Rogers believed that when client-centered therapy is successful, clients become their own therapists
Strong criticism of Rogers' theory is that it has not produced any research
Although Rollo May's writings were somewhat philosophical in tone, his views originated from his experience as a
May said that healthy people
challenge their destiny
(May) Kierkegaard, like most existentialists, suggested a balance between
freedom and responsiblity
May believed that people acquire freedom of action, in part, by
expanding their self-awareness
May would accept the statement that
subject and object operate as a single entity
(May) The term Dasein expresses
the essential unity of person and environment
(May) the terms Umwelt, Mitwelt, and Eigenwelt refer to
a person's being-in-the-world
(May) The personality theories of Sullivan, Malsow, Rogers, and others emphasize interpersonal relations deal mostly with
Our relationship to self and our ability to grasp who we are best describes
(May) various compulsive behaviors and addictions can be seen as manifestations of
May defined anxiety as
an awareness that our existence of some value identified with it may be destroyed
(May) The guilt that aries from our inability to accurately perceive the world of others is associated with __.
May defined intentionality as
the structure that gives meaning to our experience and allows us to make decisions about the future.
May regarded care as the source of
love and will
May defined love as
"a delight in the presence of the other person and an affirmation of his value and development as much as one's own"
According to May, an authentic person must unite love with
(May) Philia is defined as
an intimate, nonsexual friendship
May believed that freedom grows from an understanding of one's
According to May, a denial of destiny leads to
May contended that contemporary people of western civilization have an urgent need for
(May) people use myths to
(a) transcend the immediate situation
(b) expand self-awareness
(c) search or identity
**(d) all of these
In "The Cry for Myth", May suggested that one myth is powerful today because it contains elements of existential crises common to all of us. This is the story of _____.
Existentialism began with the work of A. H. Maslow
Rollo May had an unpredictable mother and an older sister who experienced a psychotic breakdown
(May) During his lifetime, Kierkegaard's ideas had little effect on philosophical thought.
(May) Existentialists advocate a spilt between subject and object
(May) Most existentialists suggest that people be studied from an objective frame of reference
(May) The acquisition of freedom should be matched by the acquisition of responsibility
Neurotic anxiety, May said, is disproportionate to the threat and involves intrapsychic conflict
(May) Ontological guilt associated with Mitwelt arises from our separation from the natural world.
For May, intentionality is always conscious
For Rollo May, care is the source of love and will
Rollo May believed that love and will should be separate
May considered sex to be the salvation of eros
May believed that our ultimate destiny is death
May suggested that healthy relationships blend all four forms of love
(May) Eros is a psychological desire to seek creation through an enduring union with a loved one
(May) Agape is an altruistic love that does not depend on the behavior of the loved person.
According to May, anxiety and guilt are the malaise of our time.
The goal of May's therapy is to set people free
May believed that Oedipus story lost it's power when psychoanalysts popularized it and thus trivialized it.
May believed that humans are capable of doing both tremendous good and immense evil
May's existential psychology has generated extensive research
Allport's personality theory is marked chiefly by its emphasis on
uniqueness of the individual
This term best describes Allport's approach to the study of personality
In his study of personality, Allport emphasized
the normal healthy person
According to Allport, people are motivated by
a variety of drives
Allport insisted that the basic units of personality are
personal dispositions
According to Allport, the psychologically mature person would
have a unifying philosophy of life
Allport recognized these two kinds of traits
common and individual
(Allport) Personal dispositions
make various stimuli functionally equal
(Allport) Cardinal dispositions
cannot be hidden
(Allport) Secondary dispositions
are not central to the person yet occur with some regularity
This term is LEAST descriptive of Allport's approach to personality
(Allport) Stylistic traits
guide action
The proprium is Allport's term for
those behaviors and characteristics that people regard as central to their lives
According to Allport, people are motivated mostly by
both the need to adjust and the need to grow.
When motives change to self-sustaining interests, Allport would say that they have become
functionally autonomous
Which of these did Allport NOT recognize as a criterion for an adequate theory of motivation
a single master motive that unifies all behavior
Propriate functional autonomy is Allport's
master system of motivation
Allport assumed that people who attended church regularly may have
(a) an extrinsic religious orientation
(b) an intrinsic religious orientation
****(c) both of these
(May) Research has suggested that people who score high on the Extrinsic scale of the Religious Orientation Scale
are more prejudiced than those who score high on the Intrinsic scale
Allport's theory of personality is basically
Allport's principal concern was with the uniqueness of the individual
As a young man, Allport had a memorable meeting with Carl Jung
Allport questioned the reliability and validity of self-reports such as diaries and letters
Allport believed that psychoanalysis and animal-based learning theories were basically reactive theories
Allport made no apologies for his eclecticism
Allport's personality theory was unique in its emphasis on conscious motivation
Allport regarded himself as a trait psychologist
(Allport) Common traits are shared by several people
(Allport) Common traits are also called personal dispositions
(Allport) Each person has about four or five cardinal dispositions
(Allport) Motivation dispositions initiate action
(Allport) In the United States, driving on the right side of the road would be a peripheral aspect of personality
Allport's most famous study of a single individual was Marion Taylor which he published in 1953
Allport's most distinctive and controversial concept is that of functional autonomy
Allport's theory of motivation emphasizes the drive-reduction hypothesis.
Allport's theory of personality is based mostly on his clinical experiences as a therapist
(Allport) Functional autonomous behaviors do not need constant reinforcement in order to maintain themselves
Allport and Ross found a positive and direct correction between church attendance and prejudice
(Allport) People who endorse both intrinsic and extrinsic items on the Religious Orientation Scale are called indiscriminately proreligious
Allport's concept of personality is basically optimistic and hopeful.
Most psychologists regard Eysenck as a follower of Cattell
As a schoolboy in Germany, Eysenck expressed a passion for psychology
(Eysenck) The orthogonal rotation method tends to result in a greater number of traits than does the oblique rotation method
(Eysenck) Correlations of scores with factors are called unipolar traits
Eysenck proposed that personality can be explained by 3 major types
(Eysenck) Traits are more stable than states
Eysenck would say that his relationship with his parents, as well as other childhood experiences, played a significant role in shaping his personality
Eysenck's theory is based mainly on trait level factors
Eysenck's theory is based main differences between extraversion and introversion are not behavioral but biological and genetic in nature
People who score high on Eysenck's P scale are likely to be warm, affectionate, conforming and sociable
Eysenck's P type is bipolar factor consisting of psychoticism and superego
In Eysenck's theory, P, E, and N are basically unrelated to each other.
McCrae and Costa are currently the only researchers seriously investigating the Big Five Factors
McCrae and Costa do not consider the Big Five to be a theory
According to McCrae and Costa, the Five Factor Model and the Five Factor Theory are in terms that can be used interchangeable.
Although they have published much together, Robert McCrae and Costa live nearly 3,000 miles apart
According to McCrae and Costa, the ultimate source of human behavior is childhood experiences
McCrae and Costa believe that personality traits are nearly completely determined by early adolescence
Eysenck identified traits through the use of
factor analysis
(Eysenck) Mathematically, the technique of reducing a number of variables to a smaller number is called
factor analysis
(Eysenck) A trait is best described as
a relatively permanent disposition of a person
(Eysenck) Which of the following would be a bipolar trait
(Eysenck) Which of the following statements is true?
Traits are more permanent than states
Which label best fits Hans Eysenck?
In Eysenck's theory, superfactors are called
According to Eysenck, introverts and extraverts are different in many respects. The most important difference is
level of cortical arousal
(Eysenck) People who score high on psychocism (P) scale are
egocentric, aggressive, and hostile
(Eysenck) People who scored high on the neuroticism (N) scale are
emotionally overreactive
According to research reported by Eysenck, sick people who react to their illness with anger aggression are most likely to die from
heart disease
Eysenck's P factor stands for
The A in McCrae and Costa's theory stands for
(McCrae and Costa) Currently, the Big Five can most accurately be called
a theroy
(McCrae and Costa) Factor C in the Five-Factor theory is
(McCrae and Costa) People who score low on ________ tend to be quiet and reserved.
According to McCrae and Costa, the ultimate contributor to personality is
(McCrae and Costa) A person's view of what he or she is like is called
self- concept
According to McCrae and Costa, the Big Five factors comprise a person's
basic tendencies
The theories of McCrae and Costa and a of Eysenck rate
high on biological determinants of personality
Which term best describes B.F. Skinner
While in College, Skinner aspired to become a
(Skinner) John Watson argued that the goal of psychology is
to study behavior objectively
According to Skinner, Internal mental states such as thinking, foresight, and reasoning
exist, but should not be used to explain behavior
After Skinner's younger brother died, his parents
treated Skinner as a child long after he married and had children of his own
Skinner believed the most crucial aspect of science is
an attitude that values empirical observation
(Skinner) Shaping complex behavior through operant conditioning usually includes this procedure
Successive approximation
(Skinner) Any aversive condition that when removed from a situation increases the probability that a given behavior will occur is a
negative reinforcer
Skinner favored reward over punishment largely because
the effects of punishment are less predictable
(Skinner) Allyson rubs her knee to reduce pain. This behavior is most likely an example of
negative reinforcement
(Skinner) A bricklayer is paid a given amount of money for every brick laid. This procedure most closely approximates which schedule of reinforcement
(Skinner) Extinction of a response will occur earliest when learning occurs under this schedule of reinforcement.
(Skinner) Which one of these would be the best example of a conditioned reinforcer
According to Skinner, human personality is shaped by
natural selection
A unified repertoire of responses is Skinner's definition of
human personality
Which of these concepts would Skinner see as an explanatory fiction
(a) drive
(b) ego
(c) self-realization
***(d)all of the above
Skinner saw creative behavior resulting from
According to Skinner the act of of blocking out unpleasant thoughts is an example of
negative reinforcement
According to Skinner, unhealthy behavior
is a means of coping with excessive social control
In his philosophy of science, Skinner
believed in interpretation of behavior but not explanation of its causes
(Skinner) John Watson believed that the goal of psychology is prediction and control of behavior
Skinner had no use for hypothetical constructs such as id, archetypes, or motives
Skinner decided to be a behaviorist even before he entered graduate school
Skinner contended that human behavior follows principles that are basically the same as those that apply to animal behavior
Skinner's theory tries to interpret and explain human behavior.
(Skinner) With operant conditioning, behavior is elicited; that is, it is drawn out of the organism
(Skinner) Operant discrimination seems to be an innate ability
(Skinner) Watson and Rayner's experiment with Little Albert was an example of classical conditioning
(Skinner) both negative and positive reinforcers strengthen behavior
(Skinner) Punishment strengthens a response, just as does negative reinforcement
Skinner believed that more behavior is shaped by natural selection than by reinforcement
Although emotions are real, Skinner argued that scientists should not attribute behavior to them
Skinner held that self-control is achieved by developing strong willpower
Skinner agreed with Freud that dreams can be wish-fulfillments
Skinner believed that psychotherapy offers that best hope for an improvement of the human species
(Skinner) Resent research has found that punishment tends to improve learning for people low in anxiety
Skinner's concept of humanity is both deterministic and pessimistic
Skinner's theory rates very high on causality
Skinner recognized the existence of internal states such as thinking and feeling
Bandura believes that human functioning is a product of the mutual interaction of environment, person, and
Bandura's social cognitive theory takes _______ perspective
an agentic
Bandura first became interested in clinical psychology when he
worked on the Alaska highway after graduation from highschool
Bandura believes that learning
can occur in the absence of a response
According to Bandura, there are two major types of learning observational and
(Bandura) Modeling is enhanced when the person being modeled is
According to Bandura, reinforcement
is cognitively mediated
According to Bandura, the essence of humanness is
human agency
The primary component of Bandura's P factor is
(Bandura) Chance encounters enter the triadic reciprocal causation paradigm at this point
According to Bandura, if behavior were completely controlled by the environment, it would be
less consistent and more varied
(Bandura) People's expectations that they are capable of performing a behavior that will produce desired outcomes in any particular situation is called
self- efficiency
(Bandura) Which technique is LEAST likely to increase a person's self-efficacy
increased emotional arousal
(Bandura) Carlos has great confidence in himself as a hairdresser. However, the economy in his city has recently turned downward, and few people can afford a hairdresser. When Carlos applies for a job at Mr. Dan's Hair Salon, he will likely have high _______ and low ________.
self-efficacy; outcome expectation.
(Bandura) Which of these is MOST likely to increase self-efficacy
performance accomplishments
(Bandura) Low self-efficacy and an unresponsive environment are MOST likely to result in
apathy and feelings of helplessness
(Bandura) The personal efficacy of many people working together to bring about social change is called
collective efficacy
(Bandura) Taylor, like most people, relies on auto mechanics, air conditioning repairmen, network news, and hundreds of other people who enhance her lifestyle. In doing so, Taylor is making use of
proxy efficacy
A set of cognitive structures used to evaluate behavior describes Bandura's concept of
self system
According to Bandura, the first requirement for self-regulation is
(Bandura) Which of the following would be an example of disengagement of internal control?
A conscientious doctor performs an illegal operation but justifies her actions to herself by saying the surgery was necessary to save a life
Bandura believes that personal conduct is controlled by
the triadic reciprocal causation paradigm
The study by Bandura, Ross, and Ross involving young children and a Bobo doll found that
(a) children exposed to an aggressive cartoon character were more agressive than children not subjected to an aggressive model.
(B) children exposed to an agressive live model were more aggressive than children not subjected to an aggressive live model
***(c) both of these
(Bandura) The ultimate goal of social-cognitive therapy is
Which statement is most consistent with Bandura's concept of humanity
Humans have the capacity to become many things, within the limits set by biology
Bandura's social cognitive theory assumes that people have capability to exercise some control over their lives
Compared with Skinner, Bandura has developed much more cognitive theory
Bandura believes that chance plays a role in people's environment and behavior
Basic to Bandura's social cognitive theory is the assumption that consistency of behavior is the outstanding characteristic of humans
Compared to Skinner, Bandura places more emphasis on observational learning
Bandura's triadic reciprocal causation notion assumes that behavior is the product of two variables-heredity and environment
(Bandura) Most of our chance encounters have a significant and permanent impact on our personality
In Bandura's triadic reciprocal causation hypothesis, all three factors typically make equal or nearly equal contributions to action
Bandura believes that personality is mostly the product of heredity
(Bandura) Chance encounters and fortuitous events enter the triadic reciprocal causation model at the point of behavior
(Bandura) The self system makes personality extremely consistent and resistant to change
Bandura believes that all human behavior is ultimately the product of an aggressive drive
(Bandura) People's belief that they can or cannot execute those behaviors necessary to produce desired outcomes is Bandura's definition of disengagement
(Bandura) Is it possible to have high efficacy and yet have low confidence that one's actions will produce the desired results
(Bandura) Ordinarily the strongest source of self-efficacy is mastery
(Bandura) The type of efficacy that involves indirect control over the social conditions that affect a person's life is called self-efficacy
Bandura believes that collective efficacy is inherited from one's ancestors
Bandura believes that although reinforcement facilitates learning, it is not necessary condition to learning.
Bandura suggests that responses need not occur in order to be learned
High levels of anxiety generally increases
Rotter's theory assumes that
motivation is goal directed
An event or condition that moves a person toward a goal would express Rotter's concept of
the empirical law of effect
Which of these is NOT one of Rotter's four variables of prediction
locus of control
(Rotter) Behavior potential in any situation is a function of reinforcement and
(Rotter) Behavioral potential can be predicted when reinforcement value is held constant and
expectancy varies
Rotter called a person's subjective perception of the value of an event
internal reinforcement
Rotter's basic prediction forumula states that behavior potential is a function of a person's expectancy that behavior will be followed by reinforcement in a particular situation, and by
reinforcement value
The basic prediction formula is most useful for making specific predictions. To make more generalized predictions, Rotter introduced the concept of
Which of these is NOT included among Rotter's list of needs?
(Rotter) The specific concept of expectancy is analogous to this term in the general prediction formula
freedom of movement
(Rotter) The Extent to which a person prefers one set of reinforcements to another is called _____.
need value
(Rotter) In the general prediction formula, need potential is a function of freedom of movement and
need value
(Rotter) The Internal-External Control Scale measures
generalized expectancies
(Rotter) The Internal Trust Scale measures
generalized expectancy and the belief in relying on people.
(Rotter) Low freedom of movement and high need value are most likely to produce
Compared with Bandura and Rotter, Walter Mischel placed more emphasis on
delay of gratification
Michel's consistency paradox states that
Most people regard behavior as relatively consistent, where as empirical evidence suggest that it is quite variable.
Mischel assumes that behavior
is shaped by the interaction of person variables and situations
Mischel and Shoda's system that accounts for variability across situations as well as stability of behavior within the person is called a
cognitive-affective personality system
Mischel and Shoda use the term behavioral signature of personality to refer to
a person's pattern of variability of behavior
Mischel and Moor found that children who were encouraged to image real rewards while viewing pictures of rewards
could not wait as long for the rewards as the children who were exposed to pictures of rewards
Rotter's concept of humanity assumes that people
are motivated by their view of events more than by events
Michel's cognitive-active personality system conceptualizes humans as
being goal-directed and active, not passively reactive
Rotter's theory is future oriented; that is, it allows for a person's expectations of future events
Rotter believes that personality is shaped solely by one's environment
Rotter believes the individual is solely responsible for behavior
Rotter assumes that motivation is goal-directed
While still in adolescent, Rotter was influenced by the writings of Alder
(Rotter)Behavior potential and expectancy are variables used in predicting general behaviors
(Rotter) Freedom of movement is analogous to the concept of expectancy
According to Rotter, people's psychological situation is more important than their physical environment
One of the components of Rotter's general prediction formula is freedom of movement
Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale classifies people into two distinct groups
(Rotter) Interpersonal trust refers to the belief that people are naturally good
(Rotter) A person who scores high on Interpersonal Trust Scale is likely to believe that most people can be counted on to do what they say they will do
Rotter believes that maladaptive behavior inevitably arises from the combination of high need value and low freedom of movement
The personality theory of Mischel and Shoda is called behavioral social learning theory
Mischel's theory of personality shows the influence of both Bandura and Rotter
Mischel was born in Vienna, at a time when Carl Jung was living there.
Mischel believes that behavior is much more consistent than most psychologists assume
Mischel holds that people have no consistent traits or dispositions
Mischel and Shoda argue that inconsistencies in a person's behavior are due solely to the situation
Kelly's college education may have influenced his later writings, which are sprinkled with
biblical references
Kelly's personal construction theory should be viewed as
a metatheory
Kelly compared a person's attempts to interpret and explain events to those of
a scientist
Kelly believed that his theory, like all others,
is subject to change and revision
Kelly's assumption that present interpretations are subject to revision and change is called
constructive alternativism
Kelly explicitly assumed that
the universe exists
Facts, according to Kelly,
carry meaning for us to discover
(Kelly) Personal constructs are best defined as
transparent templates or patterns that help people make sense out of the world.
All personal constructs, Kelly said, have at least
one comparison and one contrast
Kelly's fundamental postulate assumes that
people guide their actions by the ways they predict the future
Kelly's construction corollary assumes that people
construe similar events in an identical fashion
The notion that people differ from one another in their construction of events best describes Kelly's corollary
Which of Kelly's corollaries explicitly assumes an ordinal relationship among constructs
(Kelly) The assumption that personal constructs are limited to a finite number of events reflects this corollary
(Kelly) Permeable constructs
permit change
Which of Kelly's corollaries assumes that people can hold seemingly incompatible beliefs ?
Kelly defined a role as
a pattern of behavior resulting from our understanding of the constructs of others
Kelly compared psychologically unhealthy people to
incompetent scientists
Kelly defined threat as
the awareness of an immediate and basic change to the core structure
In order to facilitate clients' discovery of hidden aspects of themselves, Kelly used
fixed-role therapy
George Kelly's theory is a theory about theories
Kelly's Theory allows for change even in it's own basic assumptions
Kelly realized that his theory was a set of half-truths
Kelly accepted the phenomenological position that our perceptions are our only reality
Like Alder, Kelly thought that our interpretation of events is more important than the events themselves
Kelly assumed that the universe really existed
(Kelly) It is virtually impossible for incompatible constructs to exist within a person
(Kelly) Personal construct theory attempts to explain nature
(Kelly) a person's construction system exists only in the present
Kelly believed that psychological disorders were a result of childhood experiences
(Kelly) People who have never developed a core role do not feel guilty.
(Kelly) The personal construction systems of people with psychological disorders are much narrower than the construction systems of psychologically healthy individuals
Kelly believed that people belong to the same cultural group mostly because they construe their experience in the same manner
(Kelly) The purpose of fixed-role therapy is to help clients change their outlook on life by having them act out a predetermined role
Kelly had a basically a pessimistic view of human nature
(Kelly) Personal construct theory is more teleological than causal.
(Kelly) Harper and Schoeman (2003) found that people who rely heavily on gender stereotypes tend to have few basic prejudices
Although Kelly's personality theory was quite unique, his practice of psychotherapy remained strongly psychoanalytic
Kelly's Theory Addressed such basic psychological concepts as motivation, learning, and development.