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73 terms

Biology II: Vertebrate Zoology

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Aves
class of birds
Birds
have most efficient respiratory system.
6 classes of fish
Shark, acondoth, agnatha, placoderm, chondrictheyes, lamprey
150 MYA Jurasic of Mesozoic
When birds first evolved.
Adult amphibians
are carnivores/predators in the food chain.
3 orders of organisms in class Chondrichthyes
sharks, skates & rays, ratfish
Early Birds
had scales, teeth, claws, tails, reptile bone structure.
Archaeopteryx
oldest confirmed bird that we have found to date.
370 MYA (Devonian of the Paleozoic)
when amphibians first evolved.
250 MYA
when reptiles first evolved.
430 MYA in Silurian of Paleozoic
when all fish classes first evolved.
Cerebellum (of birds)
is greatly enlarged becaused of the increased need for coordination due to flight.
Saurichian Therapod Dinosaurs
what birds evolved from.
Class Amphibia
lays eggs in water, have gills, slimy
Reptiles
evolved from amphibians (Labryinthodont)
Class Reptiles
internal fertilization, eggs, lungs, scales. Reptiles would most likely survive in the desert.
2 members of Class Agnatha
lamprey and hagfish; parasitic fish and jawless
Lobe-finned fish
evolved from amphibians
Endothermic
Organisms with bodies that are warmed by heat generated by metabolism. This heat is usually used to maintain a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment.
New Zealand and Madagascar
Moa and Elephant Birds lived here.
Mammals
is the class of chordate with the largest cerebrum.
Monotreme
mammals that lay eggs. They also have mammary glands, imperfect temperature regulation and a cloaca.
Whales
evoloved from land dwelling carnivores.
Scales and insulation
what feathers evolve from and what they're used for.
Sonar/echolocation
how bats navigate and locate prey.
Therapsisds
reptile that mammals evolved from.
Characteristics of mammals
endothermic, produce milk, big brain, 4 chambered heart.
Heart rate of birds
some birds can have a heart rate of up to 1,000 beats per minute (BPM).
Marsupial species
kangaroos, koalas, tasmanian tiger, wombat, opossum, wallaby
225 MYA (Triassic of Mesozoic)
when mammals first evolved.
One ovary
how many functional ovaries birds have.
Bat
only TRUE flying mammal.
Convergent Evolution
process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments.
Mammals
have lower jaw composed from just one bone.
Cloaca
structure through which feces, urine and gametes pass.
4 types of mammal teeth
incisors, canines, pre-molars, molars
Captain James Cook
English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779). He also claimed he heard rumors of giant flightless birds on the islands of New Zealand.
65 MYA
dinosaurs became extinct.
Manatees
Sirenia that lives in the coastal waterways of Florida and feed upon aquatic plants such as hyacinths.
Characteristics of birds
thin hollow bones, high metabolism, 4 chambered heart.
The jaw
2 of 3 bones in the middle ear of mammals was once part of the jaw of a reptile.
Gizzard
digestive organ in burds that crushes and kneads food.
3 subclasses of Class Mammal
Monotreme, Marsupials, Placentals
Herman Melville
American writer whose experiences at sea provided the factual basis of Moby-Dick (1851), considered among the greatest American novels
Marsupials
mammals who give birth to tiny, immature young and then develop in the pouch of their mommy.
Perrissadoctyl
animals that have odd number of toes on their feet such as zebras, rhinos and tapirs.
Australia/New Guinea
where we find most of the Marsupials.
Insectavora
shrews and moles
Night
part of the day when the first mammals were probably active.
Carnivora
bobcats, black bear, coyotes: these can be found in Ohio.
Change in climate; Humans (Native Americans)
2 major causes of the extinction of many ice age mammals in the Americas 10,000 years ago.
50,000 years ago
humans reached Australia
Thomas Jefferson
loved natural history so much he was accused of turning the White House into a museum.
Incisors
Elephant tusks are what anatomical part?
2 MYA
start of the Pleistocene
State of Ohio:
state mammal: white-tail deer; bird-cardinal; snake-black racer; insect-ladybug; tree-Buckeye; flower-carnation; fossil-trilobite; rock-flint.
544 MYA
beginning of Paleozoic
North America, Europe, Asia
3 current continents that were once part of Laurasia.
Rodentia
largest order of mammals. Examples are: rats, mice, squirrels, porcupines, ground hogs, guinea pigs, capybaras.
North America
where horses, camels and tapirs first evolved.
1,200 years ago
humans reached New Zealand
Proboscidea
Indian/Asian Elephants, mammoths, mastodons
Alimentary Canal Organs
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine.
Teddy Roosevelt
started the National Park System
15,000 years ago
humans reach North America
Formation of Central America
major factor in starting the Pleistocene (Ice Age) about 2 million years ago.
Mammals found in Grandview
deer, beavers, raccoons, opossums, fox, coyotes
5 MYA
hominids first evolved
250 MYA
end of Paleozoic
4.5 BYA
Solar System formation
Rats/house mice
are 2 non-native rodents in Ohio.
2,000 years ago
humans reached Madagascar
65 MYA
end of Mesozoic and the dinosaurs