Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
USH Unit 6 Study Guide
Terms in this set (69)
pg. 596, 598, 603, 605-609
He organized this cavalry unit called the Rough Riders and gained fame for battles in Cuba during the Spanish-American War. He was McKinley's running mate in election of 1900, and became president when McKinley was assassinated. Sent out the Great White Fleet to show America's naval power. Made the Big Stick Diplomacy. Played a crucial role in the building of the Panama Canal. Made the "Roosevelt Corollary" that updated the Monroe Doctrine.
William Howard Taft
pg. 600, 604, 609
In 1901, this future President became governor of the Philippines. He wanted to help the islands recover from the rebellion. Created the "dollar diplomacy" to expand American investments abroad.
pg. 609-611, 623-625, 627, 641-646
He won the 1912 election. Pursued "moral diplomacy". As WWI spread, he called for peace but failed. He began to prepare for war. In April 1917, he declared war on Germany. Introduced the idea of "peace without victory" and made the Fourteen Points→ America's war aims. Championed self-determination. He vigorously fought for a League of Nations which ultimately failed. Many other Allied leaders did not agree with his idealism. Helped create Treaty of Versailles.
This future US president was Head of the Food Administration and set prices high for foodstuffs to encourage farmers to increase production. He also asked Americans to conserve food to send some to the soldiers.
pg. 570, 593-594, 598
Elected and assassinated in 1900→ Roosevelt became president after him. During the Spanish-American War, he warned the Spanish to establish peace quickly. He ordered the battleship Maine to Havana harbor to protect American citizens in Cuba, which eventually blew up because of a mine.
When Kalakau died in 1891, she became his successor. She was a nationalist and resented the increasing power of the white planters who owned Hawaiian land. She was overthrown by planters in 1893 and they annexed Hawaii in 1898.
Sanford B. Dole
After the white planters overthrew Queen Liliuokalani in 1893, the new government was led by this wealthy planter and he asked President Benjamin Harrison to annex Hawaii into the US.
Henry Cabot Lodge
pg. 642, 644-645
This Senatorial Republican foreign policy expert was left behind from the conference in Paris because Wilson disliked him intensely. Led a large group of senators called the reservationists and were opposed to the Treaty of Versailles.
A large group of senators led by Henry Cabot Lodge and were opposed to the Treaty of Versailles, esp. Article 10. With some changes, they were prepared to vote for the treaty. With the help of the irreconcilables, they defeated the treaty.
Admiral George Dewey
On May 1, 1898, this Commodore steamed his squadron of vessels into Manila Bay (in the Spanish-held Philippines). They surprised the Spanish navy fleet and destroyed them resulting in a victory.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
A military historian, imperialist, and officer in the US Navy. This man played a key role in transforming America into a naval power by obtaining bases in Cuba, Hawaii, and the Philippines. He wrote In The Influence of Sea Power Upon History.
General Valeriano Weyler
In response to the Cuban rebellion led by José Martí in 1895, this man devised a plan to deprive the rebels of food and recruits. He placed the population into reconcentration camps, where many died. These actions intensified American affection for the rebels.
William Randolph Hearst
He was a rival newspaper publisher with Joseph Pulitzer that wrote for the NY Journal. He heightened the public's dislike of the Spanish government. Practiced yellow journalism and his publications were called the Yellow Press.
pg. 595, 599-600
Filipino nationalists led by this man defeated the Spanish army. Fought for freedom from Spain. After the US decided to maintain possession of Philippines, he decided to mount a rebellion against US rule. Relied on guerilla warfare. He was captured in 1901.
General John J. Pershing
pg. 611, 638-639
During WWI, he guided the creation of the American Expeditionary Force. Commander of American forces in Europe and arrived in France in June 1917 with a small force. In 1918, larger forces started arriving.
The US wanted to annex this state, so the US Marines aided in a revolt against the queen in 1893 and overthrew her. The US increased trade and built Pearl Harbor there. In 1898, this state was annexed into the US w/o the consent of the natives.
pg. 592-598, 605
These people rebel against Spanish rule in 1895 and Americans favored them. McKinley ordered the battleship Maine to Havana Harbor to protect American citizens here, but in 1898 it blew up. Soon war was declared on Spain. U.S. Marines captured Guantánamo Bay & Shafter captured Santiago here. With the Treaty of Paris, Spain gave up control of this place and granted them independence. They added the Platt Amendment to their constitution to end military government of the island.
On May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey steamed his squadron of vessels into this bay (in the Spanish-held Philippines). They surprised the Spanish navy fleet and destroyed them resulting in a victory.
American troops landed in Cuba in June 1898. U.S. Marines captured this bay, and a force of 17,000 soldiers under General Shafter stormed ashore east of Santiago. The troops faced deplorable conditions in Cuba.
pg. 595, 597-601
Nationalists here were fighting for freedom from Spain. In 1898, Spanish troops surrendered here to the US. Sold for $20 mil to the US b/c of the Treaty of Paris. Americans eventually took control of this place. Aguinaldo was angry and rebelled against the US, but was eventually stopped. Taft became governor here in 1901. In 1946, they finally got their independence.
pg. 606-607, 612
Roosevelt played a big role in building this canal across Central America in 1914. Shortened the travel distance between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. More than 35,000 workers helped to dig this canal in difficult conditions like disease (yellow fever) or accidents.
One of the first battles of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) under General John J. Pershing during WWI in 1918. It was part of the Second Battle of the Marne. Initially prompted by a German offensive against the AEF. The AEF helped stop German advance.
A major part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire Western Front. It was the largest in United States military history. The principal engagement of the American Expeditionary Force. General Pershing died here.
The Influence of Seapower Upon History
Alfred T. Mahan wrote this book and asserted that since ancient times, many great nations had owed their greatness to powerful navies. Naval power was necessary to protect a great merchant fleet.
De Lome Letter
In February 1898, the Journal published a private letter written by Enrique, Spain's ambassador to D.C. The letter, stolen by Cuban rebels and leaked to Hearst, called McKinley a weak and stupid politician. Fueled American jingoism and inflamed relations with Spain.
pg. 607, 609
Articulated by T. Roosevelt, this updated the Monroe Doctrine. In the case of chronic wrongdoing by a Latin American nation, the US would restore order and deprive other creditors of the excuse to intervene. Many L.A. did not agree with this.
Treaty of Paris (1898)
pg. 597-598, 605
Signed by Spain and the US in December 1898, this treaty officially ended the war. Spain gave up control of Cuba (were granted independence), Puerto Rico, and Guam. Sold the Philippines to the US for $20 mil. The treaty was ratified in 1899.
Congress obliged Cuba to add this amendment to its constitution. Gave the US authority to intervene in Cuban affairs. The US established a naval base at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba. Many Cubans disliked this, but added it to constitution to end military government of the island.
US made this treaty with Colombia in January 1903. Allowed a 6-mile zone for perpetual US control. US gave $10 million + 250K/yr. to the Colombian government. Ratified by US Senate but defeated in Colombian Senate→ never went into force.
US made this treaty with the newly established nation of Panama in November 1903. Allowed a 10-mile zone for perpetual US control. US gave $10 million + 250K/yr. to the Panamanian government. Ratified by US Senate and Panamanian government to give US exclusive rights to build Panama Canal.
Open Door Policy
As the Boxer Rebellion engulfed China, Secretary of State Hay reasserted this. America only wanted free trade in China.
Espionage Act of 1917
In 1917, Congress passed this act, allowing postal authorities to ban treasonable or seditious newspapers, magazines, or printed materials from the mail. Enacted severe penalties for anyone engaged in disloyal or treasonable activities.
Sedition Act of 1918
In 1918, Congress made it unlawful to use disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the American government, Constitution, or military forces. Upheld the constitutionality of this act in the case Schenck v. United States
Schenck v. United States
pg. 632, 636
Supreme Court upheld constitutionality of Sedition Act in this case in 1919. Court ruled that there are times when need for public order is so pressing that 1st Amendment protections of speech don't apply. The Judge was Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
pg. 641-642, 646
In an address to Congress in 1918, Wilson answered Lenin's charges about the nature of the conflict by outlining America's war aims in what was known as this. Included his idea of "peace without victory"→ peace inspired by noble ideals, not greed. Promoted openness, independence, and freedom. The Eur. people had hope for this, but the Eur. leaders were skeptical.
Treaty of Versailles
The Allies held a conference here in 1919, but none liked Wilson's plans for the future. This was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. Ended the war between Germany and the Allied Powers by making Germany pay reparations.
pg. 586-591, 598-612
The policy by which strong nations extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker territories to gain raw materials and natural resources. They used the ideas of racial, national, and cultural superiority to justify this. European nations did with Africa and Asia. The US did this with China, Cuba, Latin America, Hawaii, and Mexico.
"White Man's Burden"
This book was written by Rudyard Kipling in 1899. Urged for the U.S. to take up the "burden" of empire, as Britain and other European nations had. The saying "White Man's burden" became a euphemism for imperialism.
Journalism that is based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration. Newspaper publishers like Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hurst used this strategy to exaggerate Spanish atrocities towards the Cuban rebels in the Spanish-American War.
Emilio Aguinaldo decided to rebel against the US when they took possession of Philippines. He relied on using guerilla warfare. The rebellion was called this. The US crushed the rebellion quickly. After, Taft became governor of the Philippines to help the islands recover from the rebellion.
Starting in 1918, this virus appeared in a deadly form. It was originally a bird flu that mutated to spread to humans. Once the virus began, it spread quickly and killed millions.
In 1898 the Journal published a private letter written by Enrique Dupuy De Lome, criticizing McKinley. The letter fueled American __________, or aggressive nationalism, and inflamed relations with Spain.
Big Stick Diplomacy
Roosevelt promoted this new kind of diplomacy based on America's success in the Spanish-American War. Developed a broader policy for U.S. action in Latin America. Depended on a strong military. Ex of Action: Building the Panama Canal, Updating the Monroe Doctrine (Roosevelt Corollary).
Great White Fleet
Roosevelt expressed rising concerns about Japan's territorial expansion at the expense of China, Korea, and Russia. He won congressional support for a new force of navy ships, called this. In 1907, Roosevelt sent these on a cruise around the world→ demonstrated America's increased military power to the world.
pg. 620-621, 637-639
Alliance that contained Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria. They were opposed to the Allies. Used unrestricted submarine warfare (U-boats) against the Allies. Lost the war. In 1918, they surrendered to the Allies.
pg. 620-621, 637-640, 642
Alliance that contained Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, Italy, Belgium, Japan, and China. They were opposed to the Central Powers. Adopted the strategy of convoying due to the Central Powers' tactic of unrestricted warfare. The US joined them soon after they formed. Won the war. Held a peace conference and made the Treaty of Versailles.
Information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view. Ex: Yellow Press + got men to join the army during WWI.
pg. 622, 624-625, 637-638
Germany attempted to blockade Britain. In 1915, Germany began sinking Allied ships using these, or submarines. Famously sank the passenger liner Lusitania. They devastated the boats of the Allies.
In 1915, a German U-boat sank the British passenger liner called this off the coast of Ireland. The U-Boat was commanded by Walter Schwieger. German officials said that the ship was carrying ammunition and other contraband.
In 1917, Germany suffered severe shortages due to the British blockade of Germany and they took action. German Foreign Minister Arthur sent a telegram to Mexico called this that proposed an alliance with Mexico. The telegram was intercepted by the Allies and Germany announced sub warfare against Britain.
Germany promised the US they wouldn't sink any more passenger ships but in 1916, they sank a French passenger ship called the ________. Again, Germany pledged not to sink unarmed ships and called it this pledge, which wouldn't last long.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
pg. 622, 624-625, 637-638
Germany attempted to blockade Britain. In 1915, Germany began sinking Allied ships using U-boats. Developed this kind of warfare where they sank merchant ships faster than the Allies could make replacements.
Germans used unrestricted submarine warfare against the Allies which devastated them. Together, the Allies adopted this old naval tactic. Groups of merchant ships sailed together, protected by warships. This was an instant success.
The Germans then British/French built their own trenches to fortify their position and used deadly weapons against each other. Conditions were gruesome in the trenches. This was called ________ ______________.
An agreement made by opposing sides in a war to stop fighting for a certain time; a truce. Signed at the end of WWI by Germany in 1918 in Compiegne, France.
War bond that was sold in the US to support allied cause in WWI. Subscribing to the bonds became a symbol of patriotic duty in US and introduced the idea of financial securities to citizens for the first time.
Committee on Public Information
pg. 628, 630-632
It was the job of them to educate the public about the causes and nature of the war. Wilson appointed George Creel as the director of this organization. Stressed the cruelty of the enemy. Earned widespread support for the American war effort.
Wilson championed national ____________________, or the right of people to choose their own form of government. This would lead to the creation of several new, independent states but also raised questions of which populations would achieve statehood. Wilson also asked for a League of Nations.
League of Nations
pg. 642-645, 669
Wilson asked for this, which would be a world organization where countries could gather and peacefully resolve their quarrels. He fought for it vigorously. Was made a part of the Treaty of Versailles. The Senate rejected the treaty.
pg. 642, 644
The opening article of the reparations (Germany pays for war damages) section of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended WWI between the Germans and the Allied Powers. Suggested that Germany had caused the war.
Allied leaders blamed Germany for starting the war and insisted they pay these, or payment for war damages. Wanted to weaken Germany so it would never threaten Europe again.
A great movement of African Americans from the rural South to the industrial North in 1916-1930. They hoped to escape violent racism in the South, get better jobs, have a chance for economic advancement, and get a better future for their children in the North.
"Clear and Present Danger"
The verdict of the Schenck vs. US case. Judge said that he can arrest someone despite the First Amendment if they are presenting danger.
Reasons for the rise of American imperialism in the late 19th century
pg. 586, 612
-Industrialized nations compete for raw materials, markets, and natural resources.
-Nations seek overseas bases to support naval and commercial interests.
-Imperialists believed in a superior American culture (Social Darwinism).
Causes and major effects of the Spanish-American War of 1898, including territories acquired
pg. 592-594, 597-601
-In 1895, Jose Marti launched a war for independence in Cuba and was brutally stopped by Spanish forces led by Valeriano Weyler.
-The Yellow Press exaggerated Spanish atrocities and admired Cuban rebels.
-Enrique Dupuy's letter in 1898 called McKinley weak.
-The boat, the Maine, exploded in Havana Harbor.
-Spain declared war on the U.S.
-America won the war easily.
-The Treaty of Paris officially ended the war. Spain gave up control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam. Sold Philippines to the US for $20 mil.
-Cuba gained independence
-The US took control of the Philippines so no other nations would take control.
-Filipinos rebelled against US rule.
Reasons for opposition to American imperialism
-Imperialists believed in a superior American culture (Social Darwinism).
-Attention toward expansion would harm efforts at reform.
-Laborers immigrating from annexed territories would drive down wages in U.S.
-American factories might relocate overseas to take advantage of cheap foreign labor.
-Expansion would require stronger military and therefore higher taxes.
-People from annexed territories might dilute Anglo-Saxon race in America.
-Exploiting people from other races is wrong and violates American conceptions of true liberty.
Causes of World War I in Europe
-People started believing in nationalism
-Theory of Social Darwinism
-Leading industrial nations competed for lands rich in raw materials and places to build their bases
-Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to Austria-Hungary throne, and his wife Sophie were assassinated by Serbs
-Alliances made before the war
New weapons and tactics used during World War I
pg. 619, 621-622, 624-625
Weapons: Machines guns, mobile artillery guns, zeppelin, tanks, armored cars, submarines (German U-Boats), airplanes, poison gas
Tactics: Trench warfare, Unrestricted submarine warfare, blockading
Overall effects of World War I
pg. 633-635, 640, 642, 644-645, 647-648
-New opportunities opened up for women, African Americans, and Mexican Americans
-Millions of soldiers were killed in battle
-Germany had to pay reparations for damage & lost many territories
-America rejects the Versailles Treaty and Wilson's idea to create a League of Nations.
-Produced an unstable international order
-Flu pandemic grips the nation
Sets with similar terms
History Chapter 9: Imperialism
APUSH Chapter 7
APUSH Chapter 7
History Chapter 10
Other sets by this creator
Experimental Exam 1 study
Modern World History Exam 2-
Chapter 10 Psychology