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209 terms

ISSA

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ATP stands for
Adenosine Triphosphate
Our muscles can produce ATP by which of the following pathways
All of the above (ATP/CP, Glycolytic, Oxidative pathway)
BMR stands for
Basal metabolic rate
The primary fuel during endurance exercise is
Fatty acids
The ATP/CP pathway is sufficient for over four mintues of ATP Production (T/F)
False
Non-oxidative glycolysis is reliable
2 minutes of ATP production
Catabolism and anabolism are the two phases of metabolism (T/F)
True
Excretion is one function of the digestive system (T/F)
True
The nervous system is made up of the
A and B - Peripheral nervous system and Central nervous system
Hemoglobin is an oxygen transporting protein in blood cells (T/F)
True
The main purpose of hormones is to
All of the above - Alter the rate of synthesis of your cellular protein, Change the rate enzyme activity, Change the rate of transport of nutrients through the cell wall
About 98% of human body is composed of only 6 elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorous (T/F)
True
The main purpose of the respiratory system is
A, B, C - To supply oxygen to the body, To eliminate carbon dioxide in the body, to regulate the body's PH balance
Hormones are classified as
All of the above - Steroids, Amino Acid derivatives, Peptides
The circulatory system consists of
Heart, arteries, and veins
Tendons connect bone to bone (T/F)
False
Muscular hypertrophy is an
Increase in muscle fiber size
Tendons are
A and C - Extension of muscles fibers, connect bone to muscle
The average human adult skeleton has
206 Bones
Cardiovascular exercise results in
B and C: Mitochondrial adaptations, capillary capacity adaptations
Type II muscle fibers are aerobic (T/F)
False
Type I muscle fibers are aerobic (T/F)
True
The anatomical terms for front and back are
Anterior and Posterior
Kinesiology is
The science or study of movement, and the active and passive structures invovled
An isometric contraction is
A contraction in which a muscle experts a force but does not change its length
True synergy occurs when a muscle contracts to stop the secondary action of another muscle (T/F)
True
An example of an antagonist muscle is
Triceps during a biceps curl
An example of a prime mover is
The biceps muscle during a biceps curl
Adduction is movement of a body part away from the midline of the body (T/F)
False
An example of flexion is the
Concentric action of a bicep curl
In a concentric contraction the muscles shorten to produce movements (T/F)
True
A second-class lever is similar to a wheelbar-row (T/F)
True
Biomechanics is the study of
Movement
Newton's second law of motion deals with force and it's relationship to mass and acceleration
True
A third class lever is
One in which the force is applied between the axis and the resistance
A first-class lever is similar to a seesaw (T/F)
True
Musclular force is broken down into the components of
All of the above - Magnitude, Direction, Application of force, Line of force
Inertia can be categorized as
A and B - Resting inertia, moving inertia
The ability to perceive your position and movement of the body or limbs in space known as
Kinesthesis
Exaggerated anterior-posterior curvature of the spinal column is known as
Kyphosis
Kyphosis is an exaggerated anterior-posterior curvature of the spinal column (T/F)
True
Intradiscal pressure is 11times greater when seated versus lying down (T/F)
True
A forward and downward move from the normal anatomical position is known as lordosis (T/F)
True
Excessive lateral curvature of the spinal column is known as
Scoliosis
What should be of prime focus in all fitness activities
Posture
Swayback can be identified by a
Pelvis tilted forward
When the superior iliac crest of the pelvis moves forward and downward from the normal anatomical position, it is know as
Lordosis
The semimembranosus and semitendinosus attach on what side of the knee
Medial
What muscle is located directly beneath the gastrocnemius and has similar functions to the gastrocnemius
Soleus
The hamstrings muscles are a two-joint muscle that acts at the knee and hip (T/F)
True
The major movements that are possible at the knee joint are adduction and abduction (T/F)
False
Which of the hamstrings muscles account for the substantial amount of muscle mass in the group
Biceps femoris
The wrist joint consists of the ends of the radius and ulna bones of the forearm with the carpal bones on the hand (T/F)
True
The knee is stabilized on the anterior side by which muscle
Quadriceps
The shoulder girdle is made up of the clavicle and what other bone
Scapula
What is the basic grip used in weight training
All of the above - Supinated, pronated, neutral
A supinated grip would be palms down (T/F)
False
New trainees should ___ through the sticking point and ___ during the less strenuous portion of the lifts
Exhale, inhale
The angle of Q represents
Starting strength
What is/are the major factor that effects strength
All of the above - Structural, Physiological, Psychoneural, Environmental
A pronated grip would be palms down (T/F)
False
A neutral grip would be thumbs up (T/F)
True
the strength curve
A and C - Relates to any exercise, has seven factors
The training zone is at what percentage of your MHR
55 to 85
Maximal Oxygen Uptake is also known as
VO2 Max
A unit of measurement that refers to the relative energy demands of an activity in comparison to your energy demands in a resting state is known as a
MET
Aerobic means in the presence of oxygen (T/F)
True
A watt is a measure of power involving a known force, distance and time frame (T/F)
True
Maximal heart rate is estimated by subtracting your age from
220
Anaerobic means in the presence of oxygen (T/F)
False
Using several modes of training to develop a specific component of fitness is known as
Cross training
If your goal is to improve range of motion stretch to the point
Of mild or moderate discomfort
Myofibrils are constructed of overlapping strands of protein polymers called
Actin and Myosin
Joint range of motion can be measure with
All the above - Goniometer, sit and reach test, shoulder flexibility test, trunk extension test
The muscle spindle detects excessive stretch within the muscle (T/F)
True
Flexibility is the ability to flex, extend or circumduct the joints through their full intended range of motion (T/F)
Ture
The Golgi tendon organ (GTO), muscle spindle and Pacinian corpuscles make up the three primary
Inhibitory proprioceptors
There are two types of static stretching (T/F)
True
This type of stretching facilitates an increase in muscle length through a maximum isometric contraction of the antagonist
CA Stretching
Endomorphs are slim body types (T/F)
False
Ectomorphs are classified as
Slim or linear body types
All of the following are methods to assess body composition except
Muscle biopsy
Bioelectrical impedance is one method to determine body composition (T/F)
True
The somatotype system classifies the human body into how many categories
3
BMI is used to
Describe relative height to weight and as a predictor of future disease risk
Body composition testingis the determination of
The determination of fat compartments of the human body and the determination of lean compartments of the human body
When taking skinfold measurement readings only one attempt per site is necessary for an accurate reading (T/F)
False
Client rapport is a key characteristic in establishing a relationship with your clients (T/F)
True
The ISA drawing-in phase is a process that
All of the above - Ensures a high level of client motivation, distinguishes you as a professional, has five stages
Stage one of the ISSA drawing-in phase is
Establish yourself as a professional
Stage three of the ISSA drawing-in phase is
Guided discovery tour
Communication occurs through what domain
All of the above - Visual Auditory and Kinesthetic
Stage two of the ISSA drawing-in phase is
Data collection
As furture ISSA professionals we must seek first to understand our clients before we make recommendations (T/F)
True
Motive is defined as an impulse or physiological need acting as incitement to action (T/F)
True
How many ml of oxygen per kg of body weight per minutes does your body consume at rest
3.5
GXT is an acronym for
Graded exercise test
Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the inner walls of the blood vessels (T/F)
True
Muscular endurance can be assessed through
A and B - Push-up test, Sit-up test
The resting level of oxygne consuption is referred to as 1.0 MET (T/F)
True
Exercise intensity should be at what percentage of your VO2 max?
50 to 85 %
Which method off determining exercise intensity correlates directly to 60% - 80% of your VO2 max
...
The ISSA recommends that the intensity level of exercise be 85% to 95% of VO2 max (T/F)
False
The specificity principle states that we must move from general training to specific and highly specialized training as it relates to our intended goals (T/F)
True
HIT is an acronym for
high Intensity Training
This principle states that ouir bodies will physiologically adapt according to whether we are training aerobically or anaerobically
The SAID principle
The principles to help you plan our training cycle, arrange your exercises in each workout, and perform each exercise are known as the
Weider principles
This principle states that in order for gains to continue the intensity of the stress imposed must be progressively increased
The overload principle
FITT of the FITT principle stands for fully intergrated training techique (T/F)
False
The principle of individual difference states that the rate and magnitude of adaptations to training will be limited by our differeing genetics (T/F)
True
This principle states that we all undergo stress in three stages: Shock, compensation, and exhaustion. Therefore, we must train in cycles to account for these various stages
The GAS principle
Which principle states that motor units are recruited in order according to their recruitment thresholds and firing rates?
None of the above
periodization refers to how a training program is broken down into discreet time periods called macrocycles, mesocycles and microcycles (T/F)
True
GAS is an acronym for
General Adaptation Syndrome
The connective tissue damage hypothesis is one of three leading hypothesis of DOMS (T/F)
True
PEMS is an acronym for
Post Exercise Muscle Soreness
The spasm hypothesis is one of three leading hypotheses of DOMS (T/F)
True
The two most common physiological markers of overtraining are
All of the above - Sympathetic nervous system overtraining, Parasympathetic nervous system overtraining
What are the three predictable stages of stress that were identified by Hans Selye in his GAS principle
Shock, compensation, and exhaustion
Metaphorically speaking, a penny is to a microcycle as a quarter is to a
Mesocycle
How Much rest time is required between sets (three sets of 8 to 10 at 75% of the 1RM) to maximize serum testosterone levels and growth hormone levels
No more than 1 Min
Powerlifting:
A and B - Diminishes hormonal adaptations of muscle fibers and Does not allow sufficient motor unit activation
High repetition resistance training:
A and C - Does not innervate high threshold motor units and Limits the potential for Type IIB muscle fiber hyper
Maximum power will occur somewhere between 55% to 85% of 1RM (T/F)
True
Training at 85% of 1RM is best for strength (T/F)
True
Training at 75% of 1RM is the most conducive for muscular hypertrophy (T/F)
True
If your client can successfully complete two or more repetitions in the last set in two consecutive workouts for any given exercise, the load should be ____ depending on your clients current physical abilities
Increased by two to ten percent
the potential for muscle fiber hypertrophy is limited at what percentage of 1RM
75% to 85%
The big guy syndrome is one of the five major myth sources (T/F)
True
The activity of what fat promoting enzyme is very high in the thighs and hips of women resulting in a higher percentage of fat deposition in these areas
Lipoprotein Lipase
What percentage of all dieters who lose weight can expect to regain all of the weight they lost within one to three years of "completing" the diet
75% to 90%
In general, approximately how many calories are burned during recovery for every 100 calories you expended during your exercise bout
15
What is the branch of physiochemical science concerned with heat and energy and their conversions one into the other involving mechanical work
Thermodynamics
Muscle will turn into fat when you stop exercising (T/F)
False
Aerobic exercise is the only exercise you need to effectively control your weight (T/F)
False
Essential amino acids:
A and B - Are vital for protein sysnthesis and Include Lysine, isoluceine, valine
Casein and whey are both derived from what
Milk
Protein is an organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen (T/F)
True
Amino acids are the building blocks of protein (T/F)
True
Restriction in protein intake will result in:
A and C - Protein degradation and Muscle breakdown
Carbohydrates are composed of:
All of the above - Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
Fiber is only contained in plants
...
A non-essential amino acid:
B and D - Is an amino acid that the body can produce without supplementation, and includes glycine, alanine, serine
Fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E and
Vitamin K
Fats are classified as free fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids and
Cholesterol
How many ounces of water should you drink for every pound of weight loss during exercise
16 ounces
The 1-2-3 nutritional ration is
All of the above - A general nutritional guideline/1part fat, 2 parts protein, and 3 parts carbohydrate/Valid for most exercisers looking to lose weight
A calorie is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius (T/F)
True
BMR is the number of calories you would burn over 24 hours while lying down but not sleeping (T/F)
True
ISSA does not condone any meal plans that contain fewer than
none of the above - 1200, 1500, 1200, 1000
According to the research, how many grams of protein a day per pound of bodyweight is a good range in which to maintain positive nitrogen balance
.8 grams
The formula: Lean bodyweight (lbs) x Need Factor = Minimum daily Protein requirement (in g) is known as the
Hatfield procedure
BMR is:
B and C: Basal Metabolic Rate and The total daily caloric expenditure
Fat Loss should be undertaken at a slow rte by reducing your total daily calories by how many calories per pound of lean body mass
2
Fat loss together with increased lean mass is the ISSA recommended mode of weight loss (T/F)
True
There are approximately 3,500 calories in a pound of muscle (T/F)
False
A pound of fat contains approximately how many calories
3500
there are approximately 3500 calories in a pound of body fat (T/F)
True
Other than fat loss and lean weight loss what is the other most common way our bodies lose weight
Dehydration
All of the following are healthy measures that will help you in your fat-loss endeavors except
Drugs
There are three main ways your body loses weight: dehydration, muscle loss, and fat loss (T/F)
True
Gluconeogenesis is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (T/F)
True
Ketosis is an abnormal condition in the body as a result of the partial burning of fatty acids (T/F)
True
Ketogenic diet side effects include headaches, bad breath, dizziness, fatigue and nausea (T/F)
True
the main fuel for the brain and central nervious system is glucose (T/F)
True
Most obese individuals have a hard time lossing weight because they have developed a condition known as
insulin Resistance
Fad Diets:
Should be avoided
At the onset of the Zone diet, the recommended macronutrient breakdown is
5% carbs, 60% protein, 35% fat
The new surgical procedure for clinically obese individuals is called
A and B - Stomach stapling and Gastric bypass
which supplement works by increasing the rate of fatty acid metabolism and decreasing the rate of carbohydrate metabolism during aerobic exercise
Caffeine
Antioxidants are compounds that sacrifice themselves to oxygen, thus preventing it from reacting with other compounds (T/F)
False
Licensing is the most restrictive of the statutory regulations on nutrition (T/F)
True
Antioxidants:
All of the above - fight against free radicals, Include Green tea, Vitamin C, and bilberry/prevent or repair cell damage caused by sunlight
Which supplement has been shown to repair connective tissue
Glucosamine
Which popular supplement claims to increase lean body mass and improve strength performance
Creatine
Leucine, isoleucine and valine are the amino acids that make up the BCAAs (T/F)
True
Supplements:
Are not always capable of delivering all the benefits they claim
Dr DeVries of USC has shown that men and women in their 70's and 80's can achieve levels of vigor associated with people:
30 years younger
Most older adults fear losing their independence more than they fear death (T/F)
True
While exercise may be an option of the young, it is imperative for older adults (T/F)
True
What is the approximate guideline duration of a workout program for an older adult
60 min total 30 min CV and 30 min RT
Strength program for an older adult
Low to moderate intensity with high repetitions
How frequent should an older adult be trained in conjunction with a cardiovascular program
2-3 times a week
Medical doctors will perform what assessment(s) on older adults before clearing them for exercise
All of the above - EKG, Blood panel, Neurological assessment
What is the guideline intensity level for an older adult
All of the above - Approximately 50 t0 80% of estimated VO2/60-75% of maximum heart rate/RPE = somewhat hard
The goal of an adaptive fitness session for a client with a disability is improved fitness, mobility and self-efficacy (T/F)
True
Which component need not be addressed in a sound APF program
None of the above
The role of an exercise intervention for chronic conditions in adaptive fitness is to increase ____ without exacerbating existing conditions
Functional fitness
The goal of an adaptive fitness session for a client with a disability is improved _____, ___, and ____
Fitness, mobility, self-efficacy
This is generally defined as anything that prevents the attainment of one's goals
handicap
Children ages 5-12
all of the above - have a lower tolerance to the demands of exercise/should not perform high-resistance exercises/need repetitions of 10-15 at all times
Obesity does not affect our children (T/F)
False
How frequently should a youth workout
2-3 times a week
how many days rest does a youth need between workouts
1-2 days
Neurological factors as opposed to hypertrophic factors are primarily responsible for strength gains in children (T/F)
True
Children are natural markets for personal trainers (T/F)
True
Children should be trained like adults (T/F)
False
Children are
All of the above - Not miniature adults/susceptible to heat exhaustion and heat stroke/more susceptible to cold injury/particularly vulnerable to Osgood Schlatter disease
Smoking has no effect on hypertension (T/F)
False
Hypertensive individuals should be encouraged to exercise at least ___ times per week.
Four
Individuals with hypertension should moderate their intake of
Salt
Statistics indicate that an estimated ____ Americans suffer from a chronically elevated level of arterial blood pressure, a medical condition known as hypertension
60 million
the recommended RPE range for individuals with hypertension would be __ to __
10 to 13
Hypertension is the medical condition of a chronically elevated level of arterial blood pressure
True
Maintaining an appropriate bodyweight can help prevent hypertension (T/F)
True
Research has shown that the beneficial effect(s) of exercise for hypertensives:
All of the above - Lower blood pressure/Normalize kidney function/decrease insulin secretion/increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Hypertension is defined as:
Persistent high blood pressure
Type II diabetes is known as non-insulin dependent diabetes (T/F)
True
Exercise:
All of the above - Lowers blood sugar levels/strengthens your heart/improves circulation/reduces stress