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23 terms

Chapter 19 chem vocab

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Bronsted-Lowry
An acid is a hydrogen-ion donor and a base is a hydrogen- ion acceptor
Hydronium ion
The ion that forms when a water molecule gains a hydrogen ion
Buffer capacity
The amount of acid or base that can be added to a buffer solution before a significant change in pH occurs
Buffer
A solution of a weak acid and one of its salts or a solution of a weak base and one of its salts
Salt hydrolysis
The cations or anbions of a dissociated salt remove hydrogen ions from, or donate hydrogen ions to, water
End point
The point at which trhe indicator chanes color
Equivalence poin
The point at which neutralization occurs
Standard solution
The solution of known concentration
Neutralization reactions
The complete reaction of a strong acid and a strong base produces a neutral solution
Acid dissociation constant
The ratio of the concentration of the dissociated form of an acid to the concentration of the undissociated form
Weak acid
Ionizes only slightly in aqueous solution
Strong acid
An acid that is completely ionized in aqueous solution
pH
The negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration
Basic solution
A solution in which [H+] is less that [OH-]
Acidic solution
A solution in which [H+] is greater than [OH-]
Ion product constant for water
The product of the concentrations of the hydrogen ions and hydroxide in water (Kw)
Kw=[H+] x [OH-]= 1.0 x 10*-14
Neutral solution
Any aqueous solution in which [H+] and [Oh-] are equal
Self ionization
The reaction in which water molecules produce ions
Lewis acids and bases
An acid accepts a pair of electrons and a base donates a pair of electrons during a reaction
Amphoteric
A substance that can act as either an acid or a base
Conjugate acid-base pair
Two ions or molecules related by the loss or gain of one hydrogen ion
Conjugate base
The ion or molecule that remaines after an acid loses a hydrogen ion
A conjugate acid
The ion or molecule formed when a base gaines a hydrogen ion