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Microbiology Chapter 3 study guide

STUDY
PLAY
The Five I's of studying microorganisms include all of the following except
A. Inoculation
B. Incubation
C. Infection
D. Isolation
E. Identification
C. Infection
The term that refers to the purposeful addition of microorganisms into a laboratory nutrient medium is
A. Isolation
B. Inoculation
C. Immunization
D. Infection
E. Contamination
B. Inoculation
A pure culture contains
A. Only one species of microorganism
B. Only bacteria
C. A variety of microbes from one source
D. A variety of species from the same genus
E. None of the choices are correct
A. Only one species of microorganism
The correct microbiological term for the tiny sample of specimen that is put ino a nutrient medium in order to produce a culture is the
A. Colony
B. Inoculum
C. Streak
D. Loop
E. None of the choices are correct
B. Inoculum
Which of the following is essential for development of discrete, isolated colonies?
A. Broth medium
B. Differential medium
C. Selective medium
D. Solid medium
E. Assay medium
D. Solid medium
Which method often results in colonies developing down throughout the agar along with some colonies on the surface?
A. Streak plate
B. Spread plate
C. Pour plate
D. All of the choices are correct
E. None of the choices are correct
C. Pour plate
What type of isolation technique is most effective for the majority of applications?
A. Pour plate
B. Streak plate
C. Spread plate
D. Loop dilution
E. Culture plate
B. Streak plate
Which of the following will result when 1% to 5% agar is added to nutrient broth, boiled and cooled?
A. A pure culture
B. A mixed culture
C. A solid medium
D. A liquid medium
E. A contaminated medium
C. A solid medium
Agar is an important component of media because
A. Bacteria require agar to grow
B. Agar inhibits mold growth
C. Agar provides a solid surface for bacterial growth
D. Agar prevents contamination
E. All of the choices are correct
C. Agar provides a solid surface for bacterial growth
The three physical forms of laboratory media are
A. Solid, liquid, gas
B. Solid, semisolid, liquid
C. Streak plate, pour plate, broth
D. Aerobic, anaerobic, micro aerobic
E. None of the choices are correct
B. Solid, semisolid, liquid
Which of the following is not an inoculating tool?
A. Petri dish
B. Loop
C. Needle
D. Pipette
E. Swab
A. Petri dish
Agar is a complex polysaccharide that comes from a/an
A. Green plant
B. Fungus
C. Mold
D. Algae
E. Euglena
D. Algae
Which of the following is not a benefit of agar as a solid medium?
A. Flexibility
B. Holds moisture
C. Can be inoculated and poured at a temperature that is not harmful
D. Solid at room temperature
E. Is digested by most microbes
E. Is digested by most microbes
A nutrient medium that has all of its chemical components identified and their precise concentrations known and reproducible, would be termed
A. Complex
B. Reducing
C. Enriched
D. Synthetic
E. None of the choices are correct
D. Synthetic
All of the following are examples of different types of microbiological media except
A. Broth
B. Enriched
C. Agar
D. Petri dish
E. Gel
D. Petri dish
A microbiologist inoculates Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli into a culture medium. Following incubation, only the E. coli grows in the culture. What is the most likely explanation?
A. The microbiologist used too much inoculum
B. The culture is contaminated
C. The incubation temperature was incorrect
D. The culture medium must be selective
E. The culture medium must be differential
D. The culture medium must be selective
A common medium used for growing fastidious bacteria is
A. Blood agar
B. Trypticase soy agar
C. Mannitol salt agar
D. MacConkey medium
E. A reducing medium
A. Blood agar
A reducing medium contains
A. Sugars that can be fermented
B. Extra oxygen
C. Hemoglobin, vitamins or other growth factors
D. Substances that remove oxygen
E. Inhibiting agents
D. Substances that remove oxygen
Which type of medium is able to distinguish different species or types of microorganisms based on an observable change in the colonies or in the medium?
A. Differential
B. Selective
C. Enumeration
D. Enriched
E. Reducing
A. Differential
A nutrient medium that contains at least one ingredient that is NOT chemically definable would be termed
A. Complex
B. Reducing
C. Enriched
D. Synthetic
E. None of the choices are correct
A. Complex
A microbiologist decides to use a nutrient medium that contains thioglycollic acid. What type of microbe is she attempting to culture?
A. Fastidious
B. Gram postitive
C. Anaerobic
D. Gram negative
E. Aerobic
C. Anaerobic
Differential media results in which of the following growth characteristics?
A. Different color colonies
B. Different media color post incubation
C. Precipitates
D. Gas bubbles
E. All of the choices are correct
E. All of the choices are correct
A reducing media is used to culture
A. Fastidious organisms
B. Aerobic organisms
C. Anaerobic organisms
D. Any pathogenic organisms
E. None of the choices are correct
C. Anaerobic organisms
For which bacterial genus is mannitol salt agar selective?
A. Salmonella
B. Streptococcus
C. Neisseria
D. Staphylococcus
E. Escherichia
D. Staphylococcus
A microbiologist must culture a patient's feces for intestinal pathogens. Which of the following would likely be present in selective media for analyzing this fecal specimen?
A. NaCl
B. Sheep red blood cells
C. Bile salts
D. Thioglycollic acid
E. Peptone
C. Bile salts
Bacteria that require special growth factors and complex nutrients are termed
A. Aerobic
B. Anaerobic
C. Fastidious
D. Microaerophilic
E. Autotrophic
C. Fastidious
A microbiologist inoculates Staphylococcus aureus into a culture medium. Following incubation, both Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are determined to be growing in this culture. What is the most likely explanation?
A. The microbiologist used too much inoculum
B. The culture is contaminated
C. The incubation temperature was incorrect
D. The culture medium must be selective
E. The culture medium must be differential
B. The culture is contaminated
What is the term for a culture made from one isolated colony?
A. Axenic
B. Mixed
C. Pure
D. Both axenic and mixed
E. Both axenic and pure
E. Both axenic and pure
Newly inoculated cultures must be _____ at a specific temperature and time to encourage growth.
A. Streaked
B. Poured
C. Incubated
D. All of the choices are correct
C. Incubated
The _____ of the microscope holds and allows selection of the objective lenses.
A. Stage
B. Condenser
C. Objective
D. Ocular
E. Nosepiece
E. Nosepiece
Which of the following will converge light rays to a single focal point on the specimen?
A. Ocular lens
B. Objective lens
C. Iris diaphragm
D. Condenser
E. Nosepiece
D. Condenser
Which of the following magnifies the specimen to produce the real image of the specimen?
A. Condenser
B. Objective lens
C. Ocular lens
D. Body
E. Nosepiece
B. Objective lens
Which of the following magnifies the specimen to produce the virtual image of the specimen?
A. Objective lens
B. Ocular lens
C. Condenser
D. Body
E. Iris diaphragm
B. Ocular lens
Which of the following controls the amount of light entering the specimen?
A. Objective lens
B. Ocular lens
C. Condenser
D. Body
E. Iris diaphragm
E. Iris diaphragm
If a microbiologist is studying a specimen at a total magnification of 950X, what is the magnifying power of the objective lens if the ocular lens is 10X?
A. 100X
B. 950X
C. 85X
D. 850X
E. 95X
E. 95X
Magnification is achieved in a compound microscope through the initial magnification of the specimen by the _____ lens. This image is then projected to the _____ lens that will further magnify the specimen to form a virtual image received by the eye.
A. Ocular, objective
B. Scanning, objective
C. Objective, ocular
D. Ocular, oil
E. None of the choices are correct
C. Objective, ocular
Which of the following characteristics refers to the microscope's ability to show two separate entities as separate and distinct?
A. Resolving power
B. Magnification
C. Refraction
D. All of the choices are correct
E. None of the choices are correct
A. Resolving power
All of the following are diameters of cells that would be resolved in a microscope with a limit of resolution of 0.2µm except
A. 0.2 µm
B. 0.2 mm
C. 0.1 µm
D. 0.3 µm
E. 2.0 µm
C. 0.1 um
The wavelength of light used and the numerical aperture governs
A. Illumination
B. Resolution
C. Magnification
D. Size of the field
E. All of the choices are correct
B. Resolution
_____ has the same optical qualities as glass and thus prevents refractive loss of light as it passes from the slide to the objective lens.
A. The scanning objective
B. The oil objective
C. The slide
D. Immersion oil
E. The ocular
D. Immersion oil
The type of microscope in which you would see brightly illuminated specimens against a black background is
A. Bright-field
B. Dark-field
C. Phase-contrast
D. Fluorescence
E. Electron
B. Dark-field
Which type of microscope shows cells against a bright background and also shows intracellular structures of unstained cells based on their varying densities?
A. Bright-field
B. Dark-field
C. Phase-contrast
D. Differential interference
E. Electron
C. Phase-contrast
Which type of microscope is the most widely used and shows cells against a bright background?
A. Bright-field
B. Dark-field
C. Phase-contrast
D. Fluorescence
E. Electron
A. Bright-field
All of the following pertain to the fluorescence microscope except
A. Uses electrons to produce a specimen image
B. Type of compound microscope
C. Requires the use of dyes like acridine and fluoresce in
D. Commonly used to diagnose certain infections
E. Requires an ultraviolet radiation source
A. Uses electrons to produce a specimen image
A confocal scanning optical microscope
A. Uses ultraviolet light to form a specimen image
B. Shows three-dimensional cell images from the cell surface to the middle of the cell
C. Produces specimen images on electron micrographs
D. Uses dyes that emit visible light when bombarded by ultraviolet rays
E. Requires specimens to be stained
B. Shows three-dimensional cell images from the cell surface to the middle of the cell
A confocal scanning optical microscope
A. Uses a laser beam of light to form a specimen image
B. Shows only the surface of the specimen
C. Produces specimen images on electron micrographs
D. Uses dyes that emit visible light when bombarded by ultraviolet rays
E. Requires specimens to be stained
A. Uses a laser beam of light to form a sepcimen image
Which type of microscope does not use light in forming the specimen image?
A. Bright-field
B. Dark-field
C. Phase-contrast
D. Fluorescence
E. Electron
E. Electron
Which type of microscope achieves the greatest resolution and highest magnification?
A. Bright-field
B. Dark-field
C. Phase-contrast
D. Fluorescence
E. Electron
E. Electron
Which type of microscope cannot image live specimens?
A. Bright-field
B. Phase-contrast
C. Dark-field
D. Tunneling electron
E. Differential interference
D. Tunneling electron
Which type of microscope bombards a whole, metal-coated specimen with electrons moving back and forth over it?
A. Fluorescence
B. Differential interference contrast
C. Scanning electron
D. Transmission electron
E. Phase-contrast
C. Scanning electron
The specimen preparation that is best for viewing cell motility is
A. Hanging drop
B. Fixed stained smear
C. Gram stain
D. Negative stain
E. Flagellar stain
A. Hanging drop
The purpose of staining cells on a microscope slide is to
A. Kill them
B. Secure them to the slide
C. Enlarge the cells
D. Add contrast in order to see them better
E. See motility
D. Add contrast in order to see them better
The gram staining procedure is best described as a __staining technique.
A. acid fast or Ziehl-Neelson
B. differential
C. capsule
D. Schaefer-Fulton
B. differential
What do the Gram stain, acid-fast stain and endospore stain have in common?
A. Used on a wet mount of the specimen
B. Use heat to force the dye into cell structures
C. Outcome based on cell wall differences
D. Use a negative stain technique
E. Are differential stains
C. Outcome based on cell wall differences
Basic dyes are
A. Attracted to the acidic substances of bacterial cells
B. Anionic
C. Used in negative staining
D. Repelled by cells
E. Dyes such as India ink and nigrosin
A. Attracted to the acidic substances of baceterial cells
A microbiologist makes a fixed smear of bacterial cells and stains them with Loeffler's methylene blue. All the cells appear blue under the oil lens. This is an example of
A. Negative staining
B. Using an acidic dye
C. Simple staining
D. Using the acid-fast stain
E. Capsule staining
C. Simple staining
Matching.
1.) 1 Km A.) 10-2 cm
2.) 1 mm B.) 100 mm
3.) 10 cm C.) 10-6 m
4.) 1 m D.) 1000 m
Ans:1. D 2. A 3. B 4. C
Who invented the first crude microscope by grinding glass?
A. Redi
B. Lister
C. Schultz & Schwann
D. Leeuwenhoek
D. Leeuwenhoek
Which type of media would be the best choice when shipping a sample of bacteria to a laboratory to be tested from a satellite office site.
A. Transport
B. EMB
C. Blood
D. thioglycollate
A. Transport
The Gram staining procedure is best described as a __staining technique.
A. Acid fast or Ziehl-Neelson
B. Differential
C. Capsule
D. Schaefer-Fulton
B. Differential