Physics Chapter 3 set 2

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When you hold a 1-kg lab mass at arms length: What aspect of the mass do you feel?
Weight
When you hold a 1-kg lab mass at arms length: If you now move it rapidly left and right (or to and fro), what aspect of the mass do you feel?
Inertia
What is the SI standard unit of measure for volume?
meters cubed
If you are in a smooth-riding bus that is moving at 45km/h and you toss a coin up vertically, how fast does the coin move horizontally while in midair?
moves at the same speed at 45 km/h
A bowling ball rolling along a lane gradually slows as it rolls. How would Aristotle interpret this observation?
Everything has it's natural resting place and will slow down there
A bowling ball rolling along a lane gradually slows as it rolls. How would Galileo interpret it?
The force of friction acting on it will slow it down.
friction
force that acts between materials that touch as they move past each other.
inertia
the property of a body to resit changes to its state of motion
law of inertia
every body continues in its state of rest, or of motion in a straight line at constant speed, unless acted upon by a nonzero force. Also known as Newton's first law.
kilogram
the fundamental SI unit of mass.
mass
a measure of an object's inertia or "laziness" that an object exhibits in response to any effort made to start it, stop it, or otherwise change its state of motion; also a measure of the amount of matter in an object. Depends on the amount and kind of particles that compose an object- not on its location.
weight
the force on the body due to the gravitational attraction of another body. Depends on location.
newton
SI unit of force
Galileo; he argued that only when friction is present- as it usually is- is a force needed to keep an object moving.
Who was the person to discredit Aristotle's assertion that a force is needed to keep objects moving? What did he argue?
he studied motion and divided it into two types: natural motion and violent motion
what did Aristotle study?
Copernicus reasoned that the simplest way to interpret astronomical observations was to assume that Earth and the other planets move around the sun.
What simplest way of interpreting astronomical observations did Copernicus advocate?
He tested his idea by rolling balls along plane surfaces tilted at different angles. He noted that a ball rolling down and incline speeds up. A ball rolling up an incline slows down. A ball rolling on surface level does not roll with or against gravity. A ball moving horizontally would move forever.
What was Galileo's experiment?
objects at rest stay at rest
What is the tendency of an object at rest when no forces act on it?
objects in motion stay in motion
What is the tendency of a moving object when no forces act on it?
Galileo was concerned with how things move
What was Galileo concerned with?
Galileo
Who relied on experiment?
Galileo
Who was the first to consider the role of inertia?
The more mas an object has, the greater its inertia and the more force it takes to change its state of motion.
What relationship does mass have with inertia?
Mass is a property inside the body and does not depend on location. Weight is an outside force on the body and depends on location.
What is the difference between mass and weight?
volume
a measure of space and is measured in units such as cubic centimeters, cubic meters, and liters.