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out of the kaplan ap book

brothers and sisters of the common life

a group in the Netherlands that developed outside the traditional church. They practiced modern devotion, which means men and women lived separate. They took no vows and could leave whenever they wanted. Teachings emphasized humility tolerance and duty.

christian humanists

Christian based thinkers and writers who were more spiritual in their outlook, less materialistic, and more focused on questions of morality and ethics.

Dante Alighieri

in the 1300s this writer wrote "divine comedy" in Italy

Filippo Brunelleschi

created the dome whichis one of the most influential innovations in Renaissance architecture

flemish masters

northern Renaissance artists who constructed realistic portraits in oil


paintings done by mixing color into wet plaster on a wall or ceiling


a family of merchants And bankers in the German states


a secular conception of life adopted during the Renaissance That emphasized individualism


a church court That was vigilant in enforcing religious uniformity


merchants in Florence who went into banking


the northern Renaissance religious way of thinking, which said that individuals could commune with God without the church

new monarchies

powerful ruling families who politically united large parts of northern Europe. Henry VII became the first Tudor monarch of England in 1485 after the war of the roses. The Valois monarchy of France established control over most of the countryside in the 1400s. The French king could tax his subjects without Parliamentary consent and appoint bishops. The habsburgs, the powerful ruling family of Spain, controlled low countries including Austria.


a popular Renaissance sculpture featuring Mary cradling the body of the crucified Jesus

Raphael sanzio

Renaissance artist who painted religious subjects

star chamber

a royal court, established by Henry VII of England, for offending nobility. Conducted without jury


wide range of skills possessed by a Renaissance man.

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