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Population genetics

the study of evolution from a genetic change point of view

gene pool

genetic information avalible in a population

allele frequency

frequency among a certain allele in a population

phenotype frequency

frequency of an individual phenotype in a population. with a particular phenotype

Hardy-Wenberg genetic equilibrium

allele frequency in a population remain the same generation to gene ration

the smallest unit in which evolution occurs is

a population

Length,weight, and many other quantitive traits in a population tend to show variation that, when plotted on a graph looks like.

a bell curve

If a population of four o'clock flowers consists of five RR plants(red flowers, two Rr plants(pink flower), and one rr plant9white flowers, the phenotype frequency of plants with pink flowers is.


For a population to be in genetic material

individuals must not enter or leave the population


immigration= movement of individuals into a population.
emigration- individuals out of a population

gene flow,genetic drift

gene flow= movement of genes form one population to another.
Genetic drift= strongly felt in small populations. A random change in allele frequency.

random mating, assortative mating

random mating=occurs without regard to genetic make up.
assortative= mating based on similar characteristics

stabilizing selection,directional selection

stabilizing selection=individuals average traits best fit.
directional selections=one extreme or the other extreme is selected for. Has highest fitness.

one limitation of the morphological species concept is that

there can be morphological diffrences among individuals in a single population

according to the biological species concept, a species is a population of organisms that

can successfully interbreed but cannot breed with other groups

fish populations that do not not interbreed because the live in diffrent ponds may evolve into separate species due to

geographic isolation

a pattern of rapid evolutionary changes followed by long periods of no change is described as

punctuated equillibrium


interna and external structures and the apperance of organisms. used to classaify organisms.

geographic isolation

physical seperation of the members of a population

punctuated equilibrium

pattern of species formatin in which periods of speciation are presede and followed by log periond little of no specifation

any violation of the conditions necessary for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium can result in


The movement of reproductive individuals from one population to another is a result in

gene flow

genetic drift is most likely to occur in

small populations

assortive mating occurs when

an individual chooses mattes that ar similar to itslef

startlings produce an average of five eggs in each clutch. If there are more than five, the parents can not adquately feed the young. If there are fewer than five, predators may destroy the entire clutch. This is an exampl of.

stabilizing selection

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