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Often precedes squamous cell carcinoma

Actinic keratosis

Primary adrenocortical deficiency

Addison's disease

Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, cafe-au-lait spots, short stature, young girls

Albright's syndrome

Guillain-Barre (inc protein in CSF with only modest inc in cell count)

Albuminocytologic dissociation

Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness

Alport's syndrome

Goodpastures syndrome

Anti basement membrane antibodies

Scleroderma (CREST)

Anticentromere antibodies

SLE (type III hypersensitivity)

Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies (ANA antibodies)

Pemphigus vulgaris

Anti-epithelial cell antibodies

Celiac disease

Anti-gliadin antibodies

Drug-induced SLE

Antihistone antibodies

Rheumatoid arthritis

Anti-IgG antibodies

primary biliary cirrhosis

Antimitochondrial antibodies


Antineutrophil antibodies

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

Antiplatelet antibodies

Marfan's syndrome



Argyll Robertson pupil

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

Arnold-Chiari malformation

Rheumatic fever

Aschoff bodies

Wernicke's encephalopathy

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Acute myelogenous leukemia (especially the promyelocytic type)

Auer rods

Sickle cell anemia


UMN lesion

Babinski's sign

Rheumatoid arthritis

Baker's cyst in popliteal fossa

Ankylosing spondylitis

Bamboo spine on x-ray


Bartter's syndrome

Lead poisoning

Basophilic stippling of RBCs

Defective dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne's

Becker's muscular dystrophy

LMN CN VII palsy

Bell's palsy

Multiple myeloma (kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM)

Bence Jones proteins

IgA nephropathy

Berger's disease

Defect in platelet adhesion

Bernard-Soulier disease


Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis

Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)

Birbeck granules on EM

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Bloody tap on LP

Chronic bronchitis

"Blue bloater"

Fibrocystic change of the breast

Blue-domed cysts

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Blue sclera

Tetralogy of Fallot; RVH

Boot-shaped heart on x-ray

Osteoarthritis (PIP swelling 2° to osteophytes)

Bouchard's nodes

Rheumatoid arthritis

Boutonnière deformity

Actinomyces israelii

Branching rods in oral infection

Hemorrhage causes brown color of osteolytic cysts: 1. Hyperparathyroidism 2. Osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausen's disease)

"Brown tumor" of bone

X-linked agammaglobulinemia

Bruton's disease

Posthepatic venous thrombosis

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Small/medium-artery vasculitis

Buerger's disease

8:14 translocation; associated with EBV; "starry sky" appearance on histology

Burkitt's lymphoma

Lead poisoning

Burton's lines

Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis



Café-au-lait spots on skin

Gas emboli

Caisson disease

Duchenne's muscular dystrophy

Calf pseudohypertrophy

Granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary

Call-Exner bodies

Chagas' disease

Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy

Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)

Cerebriform nuclei

Trypanosome infection

Chagas' disease

1° syphilis (not painful)


Haemophilus ducreyi (painful)


Multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech), cholangitis (jaundice, RUQ pain, fever)

Charcot's triad

Bronchial asthma (eosinophil membranes)

Charcot-Leyden crystals

Phagocyte deficiency

Chédiak-Higashi disease

Tay-Sachs, Niemann-Pick disease, central retinal artery occlusion

Cherry-red spot on macula

Central apnea in CHF and inc intracranial pressure

Cheyne-Stokes respirations

Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)

"Chocolate cysts"

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma

Chronic atrophic gastritis

Hypocalcemia (facial muscle spasm upon tapping)

Chvostek's sign

DES exposure in utero

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

Gardnerella vaginitis

Clue cells


Codman's triangle on x-ray

Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis

Cold agglutinins


Cold intolerance

secondary syphilis

Condylomata lata

Patent ductus arteriosus

Continuous machinery murmur

Debranching enzyme deficiency

Cori's disease

Chronic hypertension

Cotton-wool spots


Cough, conjunctivitis, coryza + fever

Toxic or viral hepatitis

Councilman bodies


Cowdry type A bodies

Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis

Crescents in Bowman's capsule

Congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia

Crigler-Najjar syndrome

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

Curling's ulcer


Currant-jelly sputum

Bronchial asthma (whorled mucous plugs)

Curschmann's spirals

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

Cushing's ulcer



Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder..rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)

Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra

Pellagra (niacin, vitamin B3 deficiency)

Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea

Hand-Schuller-Christian disease

Diabetes insipidus + exophthalmos + lesions of skull

Pasteurella multocida

Dog or cat bite

Granuloma inguinale

Donovan bodies

Post-MI fibrinous pericarditis

Dressler's syndrome

Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome

Deleted dystrophin gene (X-linked recessive)

Duchenne's muscular dystrophy

Osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone)


Trisomy 18 associated with rocker-bottom feet, low-set ears, heart disease

Edwards' syndrome

Late cyanosis shunt (uncorrected L2R shunt becomes R2L shunt)

Eisenmenger's complex

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

Elastic skin

Superior trunk (C5-C6) brachial plexus injury ("waiter's tip")

Erb-Duchenne palsy

Lyme disease

Erythema chronicum migrans

Proximal tubular reabsorption defect

Fanconi's syndrome

Acute cholecystitis

"Fat, female, forty, and fertile"


Fatty liver


Ferruginous bodies

Colon polyps with osteomas and soft tissue tumors

Gardner's syndrome

Glucocerebrosidase deficiency

Gaucherfs disease

Primary TB

Ghon focus

Benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia

Gilbert's syndrome

Defect in platelet aggregation

Glanzmann's thrombasthenia

Autoantibodies against alveolar and glomerular basement membrane proteins

Goodpasture's syndrome

Duchenne's (use of patient's arms to help legs pick self off the floor)

Gowers' maneuver

Idiopathic polyneuritis

Guillain-Barre syndrome

beta-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (extramedullary hematopoiesis)

"Hair-on-end" (crew-cut) appearance on x-ray

Chronic progressive histiocytosis

Hand-Schuller-Christian disease

Thalassemia major


Sickle cell anemia


Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)

hCG elevated

Osteoarthritis (DIP swelling secondary to osteophytes)

Heberden's nodes

G6PD deficiency

Heinz bodies

Hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with hemorrhagic urticaria and URIs

Henoch-Schonlein purpura

Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)

Heterophil antibodies

Wet beriberi (thiamine, vitamin B1 deficiency)

High-output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy)

Reiter's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis


Diabetes mellitus type 1 (caused by autoimmune destruction of beta cells)

HLA-DR3 or -DR4


Homer Wright rosettes

Interstitial fibrosis

Honeycomb lung on x-ray

Ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis

Horner's syndrome

Splenectomy (or nonfunctional spleen)

Howell-Jolly bodies

Caudate degeneration (autosomal dominant)

Huntington's disease

Kluver-Bucy syndrome (amygdala)

Hyperphagia + hypersexuality + hyperorality + hyperdocility

1* adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease)

Hyperpigmentation of skin

Macrocytic anemia

Hypersegmented neutrophils

Conn's syndrome

Hypertension + hypokalemia

Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning

Hypochromic microcytosis

Anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)

Increased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, loop and thiazide diuretics

Increased uric acid levels

Adenovirus (causes hyperplasia of Peyer's patches)



Janeway lesions

Syphilis..overaggressive treatment of an asymptomatic patient that causes symptoms due to rapid lysis

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction

Neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality

Job's syndrome

AIDS in MSM (men who have sex with men)

Kaposi's sarcoma

Dynein defect

Kartagener's syndrome

Wilson's disease

Kayser-Fleischer rings

Squamous cell carcinoma

Keratin pearls

Diabetic nephropathy

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules

Bilateral amygdala lesions

Kluver-Bucy syndrome




Koplik spots

Gastric adenocarcinoma with ovarian metastases

Krukenberg tumor

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Kussmaul hyperpnea

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