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271 terms

First Aid 2011 Rapid Review

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Often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
Actinic keratosis
Primary adrenocortical deficiency
Addison's disease
Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, cafe-au-lait spots, short stature, young girls
Albright's syndrome
Guillain-Barre (inc protein in CSF with only modest inc in cell count)
Albuminocytologic dissociation
Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
Alport's syndrome
Goodpastures syndrome
Anti basement membrane antibodies
Scleroderma (CREST)
Anticentromere antibodies
SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies (ANA antibodies)
Pemphigus vulgaris
Anti-epithelial cell antibodies
Celiac disease
Anti-gliadin antibodies
Drug-induced SLE
Antihistone antibodies
Rheumatoid arthritis
Anti-IgG antibodies
primary biliary cirrhosis
Antimitochondrial antibodies
Vasculitis
Antineutrophil antibodies
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Antiplatelet antibodies
Marfan's syndrome
Arachnodactyly
Neurosyphilis
Argyll Robertson pupil
Cerebellar tonsillar herniation
Arnold-Chiari malformation
Rheumatic fever
Aschoff bodies
Wernicke's encephalopathy
Atrophy of the mammillary bodies
Acute myelogenous leukemia (especially the promyelocytic type)
Auer rods
Sickle cell anemia
Autosplenectomy
UMN lesion
Babinski's sign
Rheumatoid arthritis
Baker's cyst in popliteal fossa
Ankylosing spondylitis
Bamboo spine on x-ray
Hyperreninemia
Bartter's syndrome
Lead poisoning
Basophilic stippling of RBCs
Defective dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne's
Becker's muscular dystrophy
LMN CN VII palsy
Bell's palsy
Multiple myeloma (kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM)
Bence Jones proteins
IgA nephropathy
Berger's disease
Defect in platelet adhesion
Bernard-Soulier disease
Sarcoidosis
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
Birbeck granules on EM
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Bloody tap on LP
Chronic bronchitis
"Blue bloater"
Fibrocystic change of the breast
Blue-domed cysts
Osteogenesis imperfecta
Blue sclera
Tetralogy of Fallot; RVH
Boot-shaped heart on x-ray
Osteoarthritis (PIP swelling 2° to osteophytes)
Bouchard's nodes
Rheumatoid arthritis
Boutonnière deformity
Actinomyces israelii
Branching rods in oral infection
Hemorrhage causes brown color of osteolytic cysts: 1. Hyperparathyroidism 2. Osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausen's disease)
"Brown tumor" of bone
X-linked agammaglobulinemia
Bruton's disease
Posthepatic venous thrombosis
Budd-Chiari syndrome
Small/medium-artery vasculitis
Buerger's disease
8:14 translocation; associated with EBV; "starry sky" appearance on histology
Burkitt's lymphoma
Lead poisoning
Burton's lines
Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis
c-ANCA, p-ANCA
Neurofibromatosis
Café-au-lait spots on skin
Gas emboli
Caisson disease
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary
Call-Exner bodies
Chagas' disease
Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy
Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
Cerebriform nuclei
Trypanosome infection
Chagas' disease
1° syphilis (not painful)
Chancre
Haemophilus ducreyi (painful)
Chancroid
Multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech), cholangitis (jaundice, RUQ pain, fever)
Charcot's triad
Bronchial asthma (eosinophil membranes)
Charcot-Leyden crystals
Phagocyte deficiency
Chédiak-Higashi disease
Tay-Sachs, Niemann-Pick disease, central retinal artery occlusion
Cherry-red spot on macula
Central apnea in CHF and inc intracranial pressure
Cheyne-Stokes respirations
Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
"Chocolate cysts"
Predisposition to gastric carcinoma
Chronic atrophic gastritis
Hypocalcemia (facial muscle spasm upon tapping)
Chvostek's sign
DES exposure in utero
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina
Gardnerella vaginitis
Clue cells
Osteosarcoma
Codman's triangle on x-ray
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis
Cold agglutinins
Hypothyroidism
Cold intolerance
secondary syphilis
Condylomata lata
Patent ductus arteriosus
Continuous machinery murmur
Debranching enzyme deficiency
Cori's disease
Chronic hypertension
Cotton-wool spots
Measles
Cough, conjunctivitis, coryza + fever
Toxic or viral hepatitis
Councilman bodies
Herpesvirus
Cowdry type A bodies
Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
Crescents in Bowman's capsule
Congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Crigler-Najjar syndrome
Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Curling's ulcer
Klebsiella
Currant-jelly sputum
Bronchial asthma (whorled mucous plugs)
Curschmann's spirals
Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
Cushing's ulcer
DIC
D-dimers
Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder..rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra
Pellagra (niacin, vitamin B3 deficiency)
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Hand-Schuller-Christian disease
Diabetes insipidus + exophthalmos + lesions of skull
Pasteurella multocida
Dog or cat bite
Granuloma inguinale
Donovan bodies
Post-MI fibrinous pericarditis
Dressler's syndrome
Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
Dubin-Johnson syndrome
Deleted dystrophin gene (X-linked recessive)
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone)
Eburnation
Trisomy 18 associated with rocker-bottom feet, low-set ears, heart disease
Edwards' syndrome
Late cyanosis shunt (uncorrected L2R shunt becomes R2L shunt)
Eisenmenger's complex
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Elastic skin
Superior trunk (C5-C6) brachial plexus injury ("waiter's tip")
Erb-Duchenne palsy
Lyme disease
Erythema chronicum migrans
Proximal tubular reabsorption defect
Fanconi's syndrome
Acute cholecystitis
"Fat, female, forty, and fertile"
Alcoholism
Fatty liver
Asbestosis
Ferruginous bodies
Colon polyps with osteomas and soft tissue tumors
Gardner's syndrome
Glucocerebrosidase deficiency
Gaucherfs disease
Primary TB
Ghon focus
Benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Gilbert's syndrome
Defect in platelet aggregation
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia
Autoantibodies against alveolar and glomerular basement membrane proteins
Goodpasture's syndrome
Duchenne's (use of patient's arms to help legs pick self off the floor)
Gowers' maneuver
Idiopathic polyneuritis
Guillain-Barre syndrome
beta-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (extramedullary hematopoiesis)
"Hair-on-end" (crew-cut) appearance on x-ray
Chronic progressive histiocytosis
Hand-Schuller-Christian disease
Thalassemia major
HbF
Sickle cell anemia
HbS
Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)
hCG elevated
Osteoarthritis (DIP swelling secondary to osteophytes)
Heberden's nodes
G6PD deficiency
Heinz bodies
Hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with hemorrhagic urticaria and URIs
Henoch-Schonlein purpura
Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Heterophil antibodies
Wet beriberi (thiamine, vitamin B1 deficiency)
High-output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy)
Reiter's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis
HLA-B27
Diabetes mellitus type 1 (caused by autoimmune destruction of beta cells)
HLA-DR3 or -DR4
Neuroblastoma
Homer Wright rosettes
Interstitial fibrosis
Honeycomb lung on x-ray
Ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis
Horner's syndrome
Splenectomy (or nonfunctional spleen)
Howell-Jolly bodies
Caudate degeneration (autosomal dominant)
Huntington's disease
Kluver-Bucy syndrome (amygdala)
Hyperphagia + hypersexuality + hyperorality + hyperdocility
1* adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease)
Hyperpigmentation of skin
Macrocytic anemia
Hypersegmented neutrophils
Conn's syndrome
Hypertension + hypokalemia
Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning
Hypochromic microcytosis
Anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
Increased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum
Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, loop and thiazide diuretics
Increased uric acid levels
Adenovirus (causes hyperplasia of Peyer's patches)
Intussusception
Endocarditis
Janeway lesions
Syphilis..overaggressive treatment of an asymptomatic patient that causes symptoms due to rapid lysis
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction
Neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality
Job's syndrome
AIDS in MSM (men who have sex with men)
Kaposi's sarcoma
Dynein defect
Kartagener's syndrome
Wilson's disease
Kayser-Fleischer rings
Squamous cell carcinoma
Keratin pearls
Diabetic nephropathy
Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules
Bilateral amygdala lesions
Kluver-Bucy syndrome
HPV
Koilocytes
Measles
Koplik spots
Gastric adenocarcinoma with ovarian metastases
Krukenberg tumor
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Kussmaul hyperpnea
Marfan's syndrome (fibrillin deficit)
Lens dislocation + aortic dissection + joint hyperflexibility
HGPRT deficiency
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
Parkinson's disease
Lewy bodies
Endocarditis associated with SLE
Libman-Sacks disease
Arterial thrombus
Lines of Zahn
Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's disease)
Lisch nodules
Multiple myeloma
Lytic bone lesions on x-ray
Alcoholic liver disease
Mallory bodies
Esophagogastric lacerations
Mallory-Weiss syndrome
Muscle phosphorylase deficiency
McArdle's disease
Appendicitis
McBurney's sign
Multiple sclerosis
MLF syndrome (INO)
Multiple myeloma (called the M protein; usually IgG or IgA), MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance), Waldenström's (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemia
Monoclonal antibody spike
Hypothyroidism
Myxedema
Wegener's and Goodpasture's (hemoptysis and glomerular disease)
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis
Gout
Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals
Rabies
Negri bodies
Alport's syndrome
Nephritis + cataracts + hearing loss
Alzheimer's disease
Neurofibrillary tangles
Sphingomyelinase deficiency
Niemann-Pick disease
Sheehan's syndrome (pituitary infarction)
No lactation postpartum
CHF
Nutmeg liver
Malignant mesothelioma
Occupational exposure to asbestos
Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
"Orphan Annie" nuclei
Endocarditis
Osler's nodes
CMV
Owl's eye
Pancreatic cancer (head)
Painless jaundice
Henoch-Schönlein purpura
Palpable purpura on legs and buttocks
Bronchogenic apical tumor associated with Horner's syndrome
Pancoast's tumor
Rheumatoid arthritis
Pannus
Nigrostriatal dopamine depletion
Parkinson's disease
Pyogenic osteomyelitis
Periosteal elevation on x-ray
Benign polyposis
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
Penile fibrosis
Peyronie's disease
CML (may sometimes be associated with AML)
Philadelphia chromosome (bcr-abl )
Pick's disease
Pick bodies
Progressive dementia, similar to Alzheimer's
Pick's disease
Emphysema (centroacinar [smoking], panacinar [alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency])
"Pink puffer"
Esophageal webs with iron deficiency anemia
Plummer-Vinson syndrome
Gout (MP joint of hallux)
Podagra
Minimal change disease
Podocyte fusion
Dry beriberi (thiamine, vitamin B1 deficiency)
Polyneuropathy, cardiac pathology, and edema
Guillain-Barre syndrome
Polyneuropathy preceded by GI or respiratory infection
Lysosomal glucosidase deficiency associated with cardiomegaly
Pompe's disease
Hemangioma
Port-wine stain
Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Positive anterior "drawer sign"
Vertebral tuberculosis
Pott's disease
Glioblastoma multiforme
Pseudopalisade tumor cell arrangement
Ewing's sarcoma
Pseudorosettes
Horner's syndrome (Pancoast's tumor)
Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis
2* syphilis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Rash on palms and soles
Recurrent vasospasm in extremities
Raynaud's syndrome
Acute glomerulonephritis
RBC casts in urine
Cystic fibrosis
Recurrent pulmonary Pseudomonas and S. aureus infections
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Red urine in the morning
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Reed-Sternberg cells
Chronic bronchitis
Reid index (increased)
Leydig cell tumor
Reinke crystals
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis
Reiter's syndrome
von Hippel.Lindau disease
Renal cell carcinoma + cavernous hemangiomas + adenomas
Acute toxic/viral nephrosis
Renal epithelial casts in urine
Pseudogout
Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent
Coarctation of aorta
Rib notching
Endocarditis
Roth's spots in retina
Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Rotor's syndrome
Multiple myeloma
Rouleaux formation (RBCs)
Left-to-right shunt (VSD, PDA, ASD), mitral regurgitation, LV failure (CHF)
S3
Aortic stenosis, hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
S4
Yolk sac tumor
Schiller-Duval bodies
Alzheimer's disease
Senile plaques
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Sézary syndrome
Postpartum pituitary necrosis
Sheehan's syndrome
Neisseria meningitidis
Shwartzman reaction
Gastric carcinoma
Signet-ring cells
Down syndrome
Simian crease
MEN type IIa
Sipple's syndrome
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Sjögren's syndrome
Crohn's
Skip lesions
Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)
Slapped cheeks
SLE
Smith antigen
CLL
"Smudge cell"
Giant cell tumor of bone
Soap bubble on x-ray
Membranous glomerulonephritis
Spike and dome on EM
Benign juvenile melanoma
Spitz nevus
Endocarditis
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Burkitt's lymphoma
Starry-sky pattern
Scarlet fever
"Strawberry tongue"
Turner's syndrome
Streaky ovaries
Crohn's disease
String sign on x-ray
Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Subepithelial humps on EM
Rubella
Suboccipital lymphadenopathy
Actinomyces israelii
Sulfur granules
Scurvy (ascorbic acid, vitamin C deficiency)--vitamin C is necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis
Swollen gums, bruising, poor wound healing, anemia
Aortic valve stenosis
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
t(8;14)
Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl hybrid)
t(9;22)
Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
t(14;18)
3° syphilis
Tabes dorsalis
Familial hypercholesterolemia
Tendon xanthomas (classically Achilles)
Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)
Thumb sign on lateral x-ray
Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis
Thyroidization of kidney
Gout
Tophi
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
"Tram-track" appearance on LM
Visceral cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (migratory thrombophlebitis), hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)
Trousseau's sign
Left supraclavicular node enlargement from metastatic carcinoma of the stomach
Virchow's node
Pulmonary embolism (triad = blood stasis, endothelial damage, hypercoagulation)
Virchow's triad
Neurofibromatosis with café-au-lait spots
von Recklinghausen's disease
Osteitis fibrosa cystica ("brown tumor")
von Recklinghausen's disease of bone
PICA thrombosis
Wallenberg's syndrome
Adrenal hemorrhage associated with meningococcemia
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
Chronic end-stage renal disease
Waxy casts
Acute pyelonephritis
WBC casts in urine
Acute cystitis
WBCs in urine
MEN type I
Wermer's syndrome
Malabsorption syndrome caused by Tropheryma whippelii
Whipple's disease
Hepatolenticular degeneration
Wilson's disease
Lupus nephropathy
"Wire loop" appearance on LM
Berry aneurysm--associated with adult polycystic kidney disease
"Worst headache of my life"
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Xanthochromia (CSF)
Sjögren's syndrome
Xerostomia + arthritis + keratoconjunctivitis sicca
Upper GI diverticulum
Zenker's diverticulum
Gastrin-secreting tumor associated with ulcers
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome