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42 terms

Physical science chapter 11

STUDY
PLAY
a major use for use for water in the average home is for
toilets
freshwater is obtained from
streams, lakes and rivers
a molecule with a positive end and a negative end is called a
polar molecule
the material present in a solution in the largest amount is the
solvent
fluids that mix in any proportion without separating into phases are said to be
miscible
the relative amount of solute and solvent in a solution is defined as the
concentration
a solution with a state of equilibrium between the dissolving solute coming of solution is
saturated
the solubility of most ionic salts in water
increases with temperature
ionic substances that dissolve in water and conduct an electric current are called
electrolytes
the temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to the average atmospheric pressure at sea level
normal boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid undergoes a phase change too the solid state at a normal pressure is the
freezing point
all of the following are electrolytes
acids, salts and bases
some covalent compounds, such as HCl become electrolytes through the process of
ionization
properties of acids include
sour taste, reacts with active metals to generate hydrogen gas and changes litmus from blue to red
what is an acid when it is dissolved in water?
proton donor
properties of of bases include
changes red litmus to blue, slippery to touch and bitter taste
the pH scale is based on the concentration of what in solution
hydronium ions
the products produced in a neutralization reaction are
salt and water
which of the following is not a solution?
sand
atmospheric air is homogenous mixture of gases that is mostly nitrogen gas. The nitrogen is therefore the,
solvent
a homogenous mixture is made up of 95 percent alcohol and 5 percent water. In this case, the water is the
solute
the solution concentration terms of parts per million, percent by volume, and percent by weight are concerned with the amount of
solute in solution
if a salt solution has a salinity of 40 parts per thousand what is the equivalent percentage measure?
4 percent
a salt solution has solid salt on the bottom of the container, and salt is dissolving at the same rate that it is coming out of solution. You know the solution is
a saturated solution
as the temperature of water decreases, the solubility of carbon dioxide gas in the water
increases
at what temperature does water have the greatest density?
4 degrees celsius
an example of a hydrogen bond is a weak to moderate bond between
a hydrogen atom of one polar molecule and an oxygen atom of another polar molecule
a certain solid salt is insoluble in water, so the strongest force must be the
ion- ion force
ionization occurs upon solution of
some polar molecules
adding sodium chloride to water raises the boiling point of water because
sodium chloride ions occupy space at the water surface
the ice that forms in freezing seawater is
pure water
salt solutions freeze at a lower temperature than pure water because
ions get in the way of water molecules trying to form ice
solutions of acids, bases, and salts have what in common?
all have ions
when a solution of an acid and a bade are mixed together,
a salt and water are formed, they lose their acid and base properties and both are neutralized
a substances that ionizes completely into hydronium is known as a
strong acid
a scale of values that express the hydronium ion concentration of a solution is known as
the pH scale
substance A has a pH of 2 and substance B has a pH of 3. This means that
substance A is 10 times more acidic that substance B
water is a
polar covalent compound
the heat of fusion, specific heat, and heat of vaporization od water are high compared to similar substances such as hydrogen sulfide because
hydrogen bonds form between water molecules
salt is spread on icy roads because it
lowers the freezing point of water
hard water is a solution of
Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions
A solution has a pHof 9. This means that the solution is
basic