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26 terms

Digestive, Excretory & Reproductive System

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esophagus
food tube connecting the mouth to the stomach
amylase
enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds between the sugar monomers in starches
peristalsis
rhythmic muscular contractions that squeeze food through the esophagus into the stomach
stomach
large muscular sac that continues the mechanical digestion of food
chyme
mixture of stomach fluids and food produced in the stomach by contracting stomach muscles
small intestine
digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place
pancreas
gland that produces hormones that regulate blood sugar; enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; and sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid
liver
large organ just above the stomach that produces bile, a fluid loaded with lipids and salts
villus
folded projection that increases the surface area of the walls of the small intestine
large intestine
colon; organ that removes water from the undigested materials that pass through it
kidney
organ that removes urea, excess water and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter
ureter
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
nephron
small independent blood-filtering unit in the renal cortex of the kidney
glomerulus
small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron
bowman's capsule
cup-shaped structure in the upper end of a nephron that encases the glomerulus
filtration
process by which fluid from the blood filters into bowman's capsule in the kidney's
reabsorption
process by which most of the material removed from the blood at bowman's capsule makes its way back into the blood
urethra
tube through which urine and semen are released from the body
seminiferous tubule
one of the hundreds of tiny tubules in the testes in which sperm are produced
epididymis
structure in the male reproductive system in which sperm fully mature and are stored
vas deferens
tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
follicle
cluster of cells surrounding a single egg in the human female reproductive system
ovulation
process in which an egg is released from the ovary
fallopian tube
one of the two fluid-filled tubes in human females through which an egg passes after its release from an ovary
uterus
organ of the female reproductive system in which a fertilized egg can develop
menstruation
last phase of the menstrual cycle, during which the lining of the uterus along with the blood and unfertilized egg, is discharged through the vagina