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88 terms

PSY2012 Chapter 5 Sensation and Perception

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absolute
Threshold for which the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
abstraction
brain's higher level cells respond to combined information from feature-detector cells
audition
The sense or act of hearing
bipolar cells
Cells that receive messages from photoreceptors and transmit them to ganglion cells
blind spot
Point where the optic nerve leaves the eye, with no receptor cells.
brightness
The amplitude of light tells us what?
brightness
How bright or dull a visual stimulus is.
cochlea
Coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear that transforms sound vibrations to auditory signals.
cold
Four distinct touch sensations: pressure, warmth, ______ and pain.
color blindness
Genetic disorder that supports the trichromatic theory of vision
color blindness
Genetic disorder in which people are blind to green/red, blue/yellow, or all colors.
cones
Photoreceptors in the eye that detect color and work in light conditions
cones
Photoreceptors located in the center of the retina
cones
Photoreceptors located in the center of the retina that detect color and work in light conditions
context effect
A perceptual adaptation where context radically alters our perception of a stimulus, for example, cultural context
cornea
The transparent tissue through which light enters the eye
cultural context
A perceptual adaptation where our culture alters our perception of stimuli.
feature detection
brain's detector cells respond to elementary features: bars, edges or gradients of light.
feature detection
Nerve cells in the visual cortex of the brain that respond to specific features of a stimulus, such as edges, angles, and movement.
figure-ground
The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground).
figure-ground
The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground).
form perception
Organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground).
fovea
Central point in the retina around which the eye's cones cluster.
ganglion cells
Cells that receive messages from the retina's bipolar cells and converge to form the optic nerve.
Gate-Control Theory
Theory proposed by Melzack and Wall (1965, 1983) that our spinal cord contains neurological "gates" that either block pain or allow it to be sensed
gestalt
An organized whole, which emphasizes our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
grouping
A perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into meaningful groups, such as proximity, similarity, and continuity.
hue
The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light, which we know as the color names blue, green, etc.
inner ear
Innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
intensity
The amount of energy in a light or sound wave, determined by its amplitude, which we perceive as brightness (for vision) or loudness (for hearing).
interposition
Monocular cue: objects that occlude (block) other objects tend to be perceived as closer
iris
The muscle that expands and contracts to change the size of the pupil
kinesthesis
Our sense of the position and movement of individual body parts.
lens
The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus light rays on the retina.
light and shadow
Monocular cue: nearby objects reflect more light into our eyes than more distant objects. Given two identical objects, the dimmer one appears to be farther away
light energy
The stimulus input for vision
linear perspective
Monocular cue: parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to converge in the distance. The more the lines converge, the greater their perceived distance.
middle ear
Chamber between eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window.
monocular cues
Relative size, interposition, relative height, relative motion, linear perspective, and light and shadow, which are used to denote distance.
Opponent Color
Theory of vision which ....
optic nerve
Part of the eye that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
outer ear
Part of the ear that collects and sends sounds to the eardrum.
pain
Four distinct touch sensations: pressure, warmth, cold and _______.
pain control
Application of therapies including, drugs, surgery, acupuncture, exercise, hypnosis, and even thought distraction.
parallel processing
Processing of several aspects of a stimulus simultaneously. For example, where the brain divides a visual scene into subdivisions such as color, depth, form, movement, etc.
perception
Selecting, organizing and interpreting sensations
perceptual adaptation
Visual ability to adjust to an artificially displaced visual field, e.g., prism glasses
perceptual constancy
Perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent color, brightness, shape and size) even as illumination and retinal images change.
perceptual organization
Forming meaningful perceptions from sensory information.
perceptual set
A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another, for example, to see the Loch Ness monster in a photo of a tree trunk.
pitch
A tone's experienced highness or lowness, which depends on a sound wave's frequency.
pressure
Four distinct touch sensations: ______, warmth, cold and pain.
pressure
The only skin sense with identifiable receptors
Process Theory of Opponent Color
Theory of vision which suggests cones exist for pairs of colors, red/green, blue/yellow, black/white
psychophysics
Study of the relationship between physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience with them
pupil
The hole in the iris that lets light into the eye
recognition
brain matches the constructed image with stored images
relative height
Monocular cue: objects that are higher in our field of vision are farther away than those that are lower.
relative motion
Monocular cue: objects closer to a fixation point move faster and in opposing direction to those objects that are farther away from a fixation point, moving slower and in the same direction.
relative size
Monocular cue: if two objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts a smaller retinal image to be farther away.
retina
The light sensitive inner surface of the eye that contains sensory receptor rods and cones and other layers of neurons that process visual information and sends it to the brain.
retinal disparity
A binocular cue for perceiving depth by comparing images from two eyeballs and comparing the difference between the two images.
retinal processing
receptor rods and cones pass signal to bipolar cells, pass signal to ganglion cells
rods
Photoreceptors in the eye that do not detect color, but work in dark conditions
rods
Photoreceptors in the eye that are located at the periphery (edges) of the retina
rods
Photoreceptors located at the periphery (edges) of the retina that do not detect color, but work in dark conditions
sensation
Detecting physical energy (stimulus) from the environment and converting it into neural signals
sensation to recognition
Scene, retinal processing, feature detection, abstraction, recognition.
sensory adaptation
reduced sensitivity in response to constant stimulation. Occurs for every sense except vision.
sensory interaction
The principle that one sense affects another sense, as when the smell of food influences its taste
shape detection
Specific combinations of temporal lobe activity occur as people look at shoes, faces, chairs and houses
smell
Chemical sense that is processed in the brain near the limbic system (part of the brain involved with memories)
sound waves
The stimulus input for hearing
stimuli
Physical energy that we can detect
subliminal
Threshold for which a stimulus is below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
sweet
How we psychologically experience sugar
taste
Chemical sense that consists of sweet, salty, sour, bitter and Umami.
touch
Sense that is a mix of four distinct skin senses: pressure, warmth, cold, and pain.
transduction
The transformation of stimulus energy (sights, sounds, smells) into neural impulses in human sensation.
Trichromatic
Theory of vision, that the eye must contain three receptors that are sensitive to red, blue and green colors. Suggested by Young and von Helmholtz.
vestibular sense
Our sense that monitors the head's (and thus the body's) movement and position, including the sense of balance.
visual information processing
Optic nerves connect to the thalamus in the middle of the brain, and the thalamus connects to the visual cortex
volume
How we psychologically experience sound
warmth
Four distinct touch sensations: pressure, ______, cold and pain.
wavelength
The distance from peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next, which we perceive as hue (for vision) or pitch (for hearing).
wavelength and intensity
The physical characteristics of light and sound
Weber's law
Name of the law that says that a minimum amount of change is needed before we can detect that two stimuli are different from each other
weight
How we psychologically experience pressure