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Anatomy 230 Questions for last exam #6, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, & Reproductive Systems

The MAIN FUNCTION of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM is to supply 02 to the body & eliminate C02 from the body.
In order to accomplish this task, the respiratory system must work in conjunction with the cardiovascular system
What are 5 functions of the Respiratory system?
(think: VDGPP)
The 5 functions of the Respiratory system are (VDGPP):

1. VENTILATION = moving the air; air is warmed, humidified & filtered.(this is different than gas exchange)
2. DEFEND respiratory system from pathogens.
3. GAS EXCHANGE = 02 & C02 (going back & forth across the alveolar capillary interface)
4. ph REGULATION of blood = exhalation of C02
5. PERMIT vocal communication
Gas exchange is 02 & C02 going back & forth across the alveolar capillary interface?
(and gas exchange is different than ventilation)
pH regulation of blood is done through exhalation of CO2?
If you hold your breath, which way does you pH go: does your pH go up or down?
When you hold your breath, your pH goes DOWN!
What happens to your pH when you hyper ventilate (breathing in & out really fast)?
When you hyper ventilate, your pH goes UP!
Ventilation is just moving the air in & out?

(ventilation is different than gas exchange)
True! Ventilation is moving air by inhaling and exhaling.
In the upper respiratory tract:
Air entering the body is filtered, warmed and humidified by ________?

(Ventilation of air is breathing in and out which causes movement of air from the environment towards the alveoli)
What type of zone is this:
The Ventilation of air (movement of air from the environment towards the alveoli), humidifes and cleans air in this zone & it STARTS at the "environment" level and ENDS at the terminal bronchioles" is what type of ZONE? CONDUCTION zone or
Conduction Zone
Is there gas exchange going in the CONDUCTION ZONE?
NO! There is NO gas exchange going on in the conduction zone.
Where does the CONDUCTION ZONE end?
the conduction zone starts in the environment and
The respiratory zone is where the actual gas exchange is occurring at the Alveoli?
The respiratory zone is where the gas exchange is occurring at the alveoli!
The RESPIRATORY ZONE STARTS just AFTER the respiratory bronchioles and it occurs where the gas exchange happens at the "ALVEOLI" ?
Where does the respiratory zone start?
The respiratory zone starts after the RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES.

(The bronchioles all have simple cubidal epithelial tissue)
Where does the CONDUCTION ZONE end/terminate?
TERMINAL BRONCHIOLE = end of conduction zone

(bronchioles have simple cuboidal)
"Respiration" refers to the overall exchange of gases between the atmosphere, blood & cells.

Respiration involves 3 processes
1. Pulmonary ventilation
2. External respiration
3. Internal respiration
If you inhale something (like food or candy) & it went down the wrong pipe, which LUNG would it probably go into?
If you inhale something, it will usually go into the RIGHT LUNG.

(the Right bronchus is a little bit more large and its a
straighter shot into the Right lung)
What is the function of the epiglottis?
During swallowing, the EPIGLOTTIS folds over the GLOTTIS, preventing food or liquids from entering the respiratory passageways!
Does the epiglottis keep the food from going down the wrong pipe when you are swallowing?
Does PSCC line the majority of the respiratory tract?
Yes! Respiratory tract lining = PSCC
Is PSCC one layer deep or more than one layer?
PSCC is just ONE LAYER; it just looks like more layers)
What is the connective tissue layer in the RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM?
LAMINA PROPRIA is the C.T. Layer in the Respiratory Epithelium.

Epithelium & Lamina Propria = MUCOUS MEMBRANE
What kind of epithelial tissue is in the TRACHEA?
Trachea = PSCC

PSCC (pseudostratified ciliated comulmnar epithelium) with many goblet cells; has cilia on it!
*It produces mucus to trap foreign particles.
What is the Cilia doing in the TRACHEA?
The trachea is inferior to the pharynx.
So, the CILIA in the TRACHEA "SWEEPS" debris UP to be swallowed at pharynx.
There is cilia there; so the mucus is on top of the cilia and then it sweeps it up & out to be either
expectorated or swallowed = MUCUS ESCULATOR.
What is the mucus escalator?
The MUCUS ESCULATOR is present in the Trachea where the cilia of the respiratory epithelium SWEEP UP toward the pharynx, cleaning the respiratory passageways.

(The trachea is inferior to the pharynx; so think an elevator moves things UP = mucus elevator!)
With SMOKERS, PSCC develops into STRATIFIED LAYERS due to exposure to carcinogens & causes the cells to divide and can lead to cancer.
Is the Nose the PRIMARY AIRWAY for respiration?
Yes, the NOSE (naval cavity) is the PRIMARY AIRWAY for respiration!

Air normally enters through external nares through nasal vestibule into nasal cavity.
What are the 5 functions of the NOSE (nasal cavity)?
5 functions of the NOSE (Naval Cavity) are:

1. Primary airway for respiration.
2. Moistens & warms air
3. Filters inhaled air (mucus)
4. Resonating chamber for speech
5. Houses olfactory receptors
The nasal cavity has a respiratory area with 3 nasal Conchae; what are the 3 names?
3 Nasal Conchae regions:

1. Superior Conchae
2. Middle Conchae
3. Inferior Conchae

***the grooves in between are called the meati

*narrow grooves and conchal surface (of the ethmoid bone)
What is the function of the nasal Conchae?
The Conchae causes turbulence in the inspired air.
Turbulent airflow is essential to the filtration, humidification & warming of air; this protects more delicate regions of the lower respiration system.
What is this cavity called?
There are superior, middle & inferior meati (conchae); they create narrow grooves & are the conchal surfaces of the Ethmoid Bone, what is this cavity called?
What opens into the nasal cavity & contains nose hairs?
External Nares
What DIVIDES the nasal cavity and the oral cavity?
The HARD PALATE DIVIDES the nasal & oral cavity!
Names the 3 parts of the PHARYNX?
3 parts of the Pharynx:

What is between the Nasal Cavity & Nasopharynx?

The internal nares are just an imaginary line that is between the nasal cavity & nasopharynx.
The PHARYNX is shared by the DIGESTIVE & RESPIRATORY systems?

Because the Pharynx is shared by both these systems; there is Stratified Squamous for protection
because food goes there!)

(The Oropharynx & Laryngopharynx are the parts of the PHARYNX that are shared)
There are 3 parts to the pharynx but....
**Which 2 parts of the Pharynx are for protection and share a passageway for food & air?
The 2 parts of the pharynx for protection & share a passageway for food & air are the:

Oropharynx & Laryngopharynx

(what kind of epithelial tissue are both lined with for protection? STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM for protection!)
Just know to locate area in case he puts tape on there:
where is the laryngopharynx located?
laryngopharynx includes:
the portion lying between the HYOID BONE and the ENTRANCE to the ESOPHAGUS
What are the 2 types of TONSILS in the OROPHARYNX?
The 2 types of tonsils in the Oropharynx are:

1. Palatine tonsils
2. Lingual tonsils
What is this called?

It is from the soft palate to the epiglottis and it has stratified squamous epithelium; this is called?

(Orotharynx is linded with Stratified Squamous epithelium)
Know area in case he puts tape on it:

What is this called?
It is from internal nares to Uvula, only an air passageway, closed off during swallowing, has pharyngeal tonsils & contains the opening to the Eustachian (auditory) tube is the _________?

(Nasopharynx is lined with PSCC epithelium)
Know area in case he puts tape on it:

What is this called?
This is located between the HYOID & entrance to the ESOPHAGUS, has a passageway for both food & air and continues with esophagus & larynx.

(Laryngopharynx is lined with Stratified Squamous epithelium)
Where is the opening to the EUSTACHIAN (auditory) TUBE?

(nasopharynx is lined with PSCC epithelium)
LARYNX: (aka: your "voice box" because it contains the vocal cords).
The Larynx is an air passageway made of many pieces of cartilage, name them.
Larynx has many pieces of cartilage :
(1) Epiglottis
(1)Thyroid cartilage
(1) Cricoid cartilage
(2) Arytenoid = (on posterior looks like an "A")
(2) Corniculate = (on posterior & it looks like candy
corn on model)

**Anywhere you see cartilage; there is PSCC underneath it. There is also some stratified squamous squamous there as well!
The LENGTH & THICKNESS of the VOCAL CORDS (aka: FOLDS) helps determine the sounds of one's voice?

*TRUE Vocal Cord = Vocal fold
*FALSE Vocal Cord = Vestibular fold
The Trachea starts below the larynx and ends at Carina (is betweenC6 to T5)?
Trachea is inferior to the larynx. The trachea starts at C6 and ends T5 at the Carina.
The cartilages reinforcing the trachea are
C-shaped rings rather than complete circular rings!

How does this shape facilitate swallowing while still protecting the TRACHEA?
The tracheal cartilages are C-shaped to allow room for the esophageal expansion when large portions of food or liquid are swallowed.
The TRACHEA has C-RINGS of cartilage and the POSTERIOR WALL DISTORTS allowing food passage through esophagus?

The trachea's posterior walls can distort because it has SMOOTH MUSCLE connected to each end of the C-Rings of cartilage = called the TRACHEALIS MUSCLE
Is the Carina the important landmark that marks the END of the TRACHEA?
Yes! The END of the TRACHEA = CARINA

(Think: Carina wears a bikini; the end of the trachea looks like a bikini before it splits into Right & Left
Primary Bronchi)
TheTrachea is a tough but flexible "windpipe" and is attached to the Cricoid cartilage & the TRACHEA is anterior to the esophagus.

(the esophagus is located directly posterior to the TRACHEA!)
The Trachea has "C - shaped" rings of hyline cartilage protecting airway allowing for swallowing?

The C shaped cartilage does not go all the way around the trachea, so it is a C shape ring.
What would you name the smooth muscle on the TRACHEA?
TRACHEALIS MUSCLE = smooth muscle around the Trachea.

(It runs across the posterior wall of the Trachea connecting ends of tracheal cartilage).
How are trachea cartilages involved in respiration?
Tracheal cartilages prevent the overexpansion or collapse of the airways during respiration, thereby keeping the airway open and functional.
Can you distinguish the RIGHT primary Bronchus from the LEFT primary Bronchus?
The RIGHT PRIMARY BRONCHUS has a larger diameter, and it extends toward the lung at a steeper angle!
All the BRONCHI have cartilage around them:
*Right & Left Primary Bronchi
*Secondary Bronchi (Lobar)
*Tertiary Bronchi (Segmental)
Right & Left primary Bronchi, Secondary Bronchi (Lobar) & Tertiary Bronchi (Segmental) ALL HAVE CARTILAGE AROUND THEM!

***When you see the cartilage around them, they all have PSCC on the inside!
Is there cartilage on the Bronchioles?
There is NO cartilage on the Bronchioles!
Bronchioles have smooth muscle.

(bronchioles have simple cuboidal)
Bronchioles = smooth muscle
When you get to the BRONCHIOLES, they all have SMOOTH MUSCLE around them and are all under AUTONOMIC CONTROL?

******There is no cartilage on the Bronchioles!!!!

FYI:*When you are not in the BRONCHI anymore the cartilage starts to fade away. Then you get into the Bronchioles where there is no cartilage!

(bronchioles have simple cuboidal epithelial tissue)
What will happen to the BRONCHIOLES during Autonomic control ?
Autonomic Control & BRONCHIOLES

Sympathetic = (EPI) epinephrine = Bronchioles are going to DILATE AIRWAYS.

Parasympatheic = rest & digest = Bronchioles are

(bronchioles have simple cuboidal epithelial tissue)
What is bronchodilation?
Bronchodialtion is the enlargement of the airway!
Why are there almost NO cilia and NO mucus cells or mucus glands in the RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLE?
Filtration and humidification are complete by the time air reaches the RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLE; so the need for those structures are eliminated!
In the Respiratory System, where can you find SIMPLE SQUAMOUS?

1. Alveolar Duct
2. ALveolar Sac
3. Alveolus
In the Respiratory System, where can you find STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS?

1. External Nares
2. Oropharynx
3. Laryngopharynx
4. Larynx (has Stratified Squamous & PSCC)
In the Respiratory System, where can you find PSCC?
PSCC are in the following:

1. Nasal Cavity
2. Nasopharynx
3. Larynx (has PSCC & Stratified Squamous)
4. Trachea
5. Bronchi'

(also, in the respiratory system where ever there is cartilage, there is PSCC underneath/inside)
In the Respiratory System, where can you find SIMPLE CUBODIAL?

1. Terminal Bronchioles
2. Respiratory Bronchioles
What cells are at the Alveolar?
Alveolar = simple squamous epithelium
Name 3 types of cells found within alveoli?
3 types of cells found within Alveoli are:

1. Alveolar Type 1 cells = simple Squamous epithelial
2. Alveolar Type 2 cells = SURFACTANT cells
3. Alveolar Macrophages
What cell is this?

This cell of alveoli have simple squamous epithelium, are more numerous, makes "walls" of alveoli, provides "surface area" for gas exchange & "thin" (good for diffusion) is what type of cell?
Alveolar Type 1 cells = Alveolar simple Squamous epithelial
What cell is this?

This cell releases & produces "SURFACTANT" to reduce surface tension, prevents alveolar collapse during exhalation & begins at 7-8 months of fetal development is what type of cell?
Alveolar Type 2 cells = SURFACTANT cells = special cells that make & release surfactant
What is the main function of surfactant?
surfactant helps prevent the alveoli from collapsing
What is the function of the surfactant produced by the alveolar type 2 cells (surfactant cells)?
The SURFACTANT coats the inner surface of each alveolus and helps to reduce surface tension and avoid the collapse of the Alveoli.
What is the condition/syndrome called when you can't make surfactant?
Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)

very common when a fetus comes out to early; difficult to inflate lungs without surfactant!
Which cell has the PRIMARY function of DEFENSE & PROTECTION of alveolar surface, what is this cell called?
The site for FREE MOVEMENT of alveolar macrophages is at _______?
Internal Surfaces of Alveoli

(because lots of stuff is being inhaled; need defenses there)
The RIGHT BRONCHI is wider & shorter than the LEFT bronchi. Therefore, foreign objects are more likely to lodge in the Right BRONCHI.
The SECONDARY (Lobar) BRONCHI has three on the right and two on the left?
How many LOBES do you have on each side of the the LUNGS, ?
The LUNGS have 3 lobes on the RIGHT SIDE and
2 lobes on the LEFT SIDE.
What is the function of the SEPTA?
The SEPTA divides the lung into lobules
What are the LUNGS separated by?
Make sure you know the following landmarks to identify on the lungs!
Lungs are separated by FISSURES.

1. Superior fissure
2. Middle fissure
3. Inferior fissure
4. Horizontal Fissure/grove (Transverse)
5. Oblique fissure/grove
6. Apex = top point of lungs
7. Base (aka: diaphragmatic surface)= lower flat portion of lungs
8. Mediastinal Surface
9. Coastal surface

(*right lung has 3 lobes)
* (left lung has 2 lobes)
There are 150 million Alveoli PER LUNG?
The Alveoli' are surrounded by capillaries & elastic fibers.
The capillaries cover 90% of surface of Alveoli.
The elastic fibers recoil to push air out (to assist ventilation)
The Alveoli' have a HUGE internal surface area; if you were to fold it out, it would be the size of a tennis court area?
For normal breathing (pulmonary ventilation):

What are the 3 most important respiratory muscles?
1. Diaphragm (the main muscle of respiration!)
2. External intercostal muscles= (inhale/breathe in)
3. Internal intercostal muscles=(exhale/breathe out)
When you are sitting there, quietly breathing:

What is your normal MAIN MUSCLE of respiration?
What do the muscles in your external intercostals do?
External intercostal = you INHALE (breathe in)
What do the muscles in your INTERNAL intercostals do?
INTERNAL intercostal = you EXHALE (breathe out)
How does DEEP breathing DIFFER than COASTAL breathing?
the diaphragm contracts in deep breathing!
Inhalation = thoracic volume increases
Exhalation = thoracic volume decreases
For normal quite breathing at rest:
Inspiration = INCREASE volume of thoracic cavity
Expiration = DECREASE volume of thoracic cavity
What happens to the volume of the THORACIC CAVITY during INSPIRATION?
Inspiration = INCREASE VOLUME of thoracic cavity
What happens to the volume of the THORACIC CAVITY during EXPIRATION?
Expiration = DECREASE VOLUME of thoracic cavity
During normal quite breathing at rest.

Inspiration (breathing in normally) = INCREASE volume of thoracic cavity
To increase DEPTH & FREQUENCY of breaths, what 2 muscles are used?
2 Muscles used to increase depth & frequency of breaths are:

1. Sternocleidomastoid
2. Scalenes
Is there MUSCULAR ACTIVITY required during NORMAL EXPIRATION (exhaling/breathing out)?
When FORCEFULLY EXHALING (breathing out), what 5 muscles are used?
Forcefully exhaling uses 5 muscles:
(your compressing. ex: blowing out candles or when you are really struggling to breath you use all these muscles.)

1. INTERNAL intercostals (to exhale)
2. Rectus abdominis
3. Transverse abdominis
4. Internal obliques
5. External obliques
Why happens to the lungs and respiratory tract with chronic smokers?
Chronic smoking damages the lining of the air passageways.
* CILIA are seared off the surface of the cells by the heat.
*Smokers = the PSCC cells develop into stratified layer due to exposure to carcinogens and causes cells to divide and can lead to cancer.

*nicotine, tar an carcinogens damages the respiratory membrane.
*they develop a hacking "smokers cough"
****What condition/disease is this?

Its a chronic progressive condition characterized by shortness of breath and resulting from the destruction of respiratory
exchange surfaces?

***(you loose surface area in the alveoli for gas exchange, so the 02 & C02 are not getting across)
In emphysema, alveoli are replaced by large air spaces and elastic fibrous connective tissue.

How do these changes affect the lungs??
As a result of EMPHYSEMA, the larger air spaces and lack of elasticity will reduce the efficiency of capillary exchange and pulmonary ventilation.
****Which condition is this?

It is an allergic inflammation and is hypersensitivity to irritants in the air or to stress and could be genetic?
This is a characteristic of what condition?

There is contraction of bronchiole smooth muscle and secretion of mucus in airways?
****What disease is this?

This is a inherited disease, the EXOCRINE GLAND function is disrupted and the respiratory system is affected by the OVERSECRETION OF VISCOUS MUCUS
****What is this condition?

Can't make surfactant; so the alveoli collapses & an inability to maintain adequate levels of gas exchange at the lungs?
Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
The portion of the pharynx that receives BOTH air and food is the_______?
Which paired laryngeal cartilages are involved with OPENING & CLOSING of the GLOTTIS?
The paired laryngeal cartilages involved with the opening & closing of the glottis are:

What aspect of laryngeal function would be impaired if the ARYTENOID and CORNICULATE CARTILAGE were damaged?
sound production would be impaired!
Where are the vocal cords located?
Vocal cords are located in the LARYNX

*TRUE VOCAL CORDS = Vocal folds
*FALSE VOCAL CORDS = Vestibular folds
TRUE VOCAL CORDS = Vocal folds
FALSE VOCAL CORDS = Vestibular folds
...Theses Vocal cords are located in the LARYNX
What 2 things do the intrinsic laryngeal muscles do?
1. One group regulates tension in the TRUE VOCAL CORDS (aks: vocal folds).

2. The second group opens and closes the
The cartilage that serves as a base for the larynx is __________?
Cricoid cartilage
What is the TRACHEA reinforced with?
Trachea is reinforced with C-SHAPED CARTILAGES
The cartilage blocks in the walls of the secondary and tertiary bronchi to support the bronchi and assist in keeping the lumens open?
In the respiratory system, what do Sensory receptors regulate?
Sensory receptors regulate RESPIRATION
Name 2 sensory receptors that regulate respiration?
2 Sensory receptors that regulate respiration are:

1. Mechanoreceptor
2. Chemoreceptor
Sensory receptors regulate respiration:

Which receptors detect changes in"lung Volume" or "arterial blood pressure"?
Sensory receptors regulate respiration:

Which receptors are detecting C02, pH, 02 of BLOOD and CSF?
There are chemoreceptors in your body that are detecting C02, pH, 02 levels.

If C02 is low, will it make it breathe faster or slower?
If C02 is low = you breathe FASTER to get rid of the C02.

(the good place to check your blood for this = Carotid and Aorta Bodies)
There are chemoreceptors in your body that are detecting C02, pH, 02 levels.

If your pH is getting acidic, will it make you breathe faster or slower?
If your pH is getting acidic = you breathe FASTER.

(the good place to check your blood for this = Carotid and Aorta Bodies)
There are chemoreceptors in your body that are detecting C02, pH, 02 levels.

If your pH is getting too basic, will it make you breathe faster or slower?
If your pH is getting too basic = you breathe SLOWER

(the good place to check your blood for this = Carotid and Aorta Bodies)
Digestive System:
The main purpose of the Digestive system is to:
***To break down food into a "usable" (absorbable) form
***To supply our cells with the nutrients they need for energy, growth & repair
What are the 4 Functions of the Digestive System?
4 functions of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: (DAMS)

1. Digestion
2. Absorption
3. Motility
4. Secretion
What does DIGESTION do for the Digestive System?
DIGESTION = mechanically & chemically breakdown of food (material).
What does ABSORPTION do for the Digestive System?
ABSORPTION = moving food from the Lumen to the bloodstream to absorb!

(movement of material/food from the lumen into the blood stream).
What does MOTILITY do for the Digestive System?
MOTILITY = moving food through the digestive system.

(movement of food from the oral cavity to
the anus; by swallowing & peristalsis).
What does SECRETION do for the Digestive System?
SECRETION = Exocrine RELEASE OF ENZYMES into the lumen of the digestive tract for chemical digestion.
What are the 2 PARTS of the digestive system?
1. Gastrointestional Tract (GI) = (aka: alimentary canal) = the GI are the BIG PARTS: oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, sm & lg intestine & rectum.

2. Accessory organs; pancrease, liver & gallbladder
In the digestive system, does the GI tract have a continuous tube that is about 30 feet in length?
It is a continuous passageway (tube) which contains the food from the time it enters the body, until it leaves; organs include (THESE ARE THE BIG PARTS):
***mouth (oral cavity), esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum
GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT (GI Tract) = aka: Alimentary canal
What part of the digestive system is this?
It participates in the digestive processes and the organs include:
** liver, gall bladder, pancreas?

(these are also included:teeth, tongue, salivary glands)
Do the ACCESSORY ORGANS in the digestive system communicate with GI tract via DUCTS?
What are the 4 layers (tunica's) of the GI TRACT?
all 4 layers (tunica's) of the GI tract; are found in the esophagus, small & large intestines and the stomach:
Think: TUNICA/layers (MSMS)

1. MUCOSA = (inside layer/closest to the lumen)
4. SEROSA (aka visceral peritoneum) = (the
outside layer ---furthest away from the lumen)
Do you have SMOOTH muscle or SKELETAL muscle around the small & large Intestines?
In your stomach, which Tunica layer is SMOOTH muscle?
The tunica MUSCULARIS EXTERNA of the stomach = In the STOMACH, this layer of smooth muscle has 3 LAYERS to it!
What is the name of the C.T. SEROUS MEMBRANE that lines (directly touches) the walls and organs of the abdominalpelvic cavity?
Tunica SEROUSA (aka Visceral Peritoneum) = it is slick, shiny and secretes fluids; it keeps things from sticking to each other.
*it is the outside layer that is furthest away from the lumen.

(there is NOT SEROUSA in the esophagus,
rectum = instead in those 2 areas, the outside layer is called Tunica ADVENTITA !)
In the LUMEN of the GI tract, what are the big FOLDS called that increase the surface area?
In lumen the big FOLDS = PLICA

(the VILLi is pretty big located on the PLICA also increase surface area!)

Plica & Villa are in the SMALL INTESTINE
What kind of epithelial tissue is on the villi of the Plica?
Villi = SIMPLE COLUMBAR epithelial tissue

(ex: in the Small intestine)
in the stomach, What is the name of the strip of SMOOTH MUSCLE that is in the MUCOSA LAYER?
MUSCULARIS MUCOSA is the strip of smooth muscle in the mucosa layer of the STOMACH.

FYI: (on microscope slide in lab, this is the first thing you will look for the muscularis mucosa this is your dividing
line for the mucosa & submucosa layers).
On microscope:
What is that? (ex: small intestine)
What is the pointer on? (ex: VILLI)
What epithelium is that? (ex: simple columbar)
What layer are we in of the 4 layers? (ex: tunica mucosa)
(this is where the food goes)
What is the C.T. serious membrane called that is NOT in the esophagus or rectum?
Tunica SEROUSA (aka: Visceral Peritoneum)= C.T. serious Membrane

the espohagus & rectum have tunica ADVENTITA
The TUNICA SEROSA (aka: Visceral Peritoneum) is everywhere EXCEPT in these 2 area ________& __________?
Esophagus & Rectum

There are NO Tunica Serosa in the ESOPHAGUS AND RECTUM; instead they have Tunica ADVENTITIA!
The Esophagus & Rectum have Tunica Adventitia (and does NOT have Tunica SEROSA!).
What type of muscle is this called?

This type of muscle has the ability to stretch, has gap junctions and is arranged in sheets?
Smooth muscle has sarcomeres ?
False! NO sarcomeres & NO striations in smooth muscle!
Smooth muscle has ACTIN & MYOSIN?
What are the 2 forms of CONTRACTIONS in Smooth Muscle?
2 forms of contractions with SMOOTH MUSCLE are:

1. Peristalsis (moving things along) = involuntary
2. Segmentation (its like riding a bike)
What is this called?
What is the net movement of food (material) moving towards the rectum?
What is this called?
There is NO net movement of food (material), but there is mixing and churning going on?
The ENTERIC NEVROUS SYSTEM is like your GUT BRAIN. It's the nerves network that control digestive reflexes?
The abdominal cavity is lined with parietal peritoneum & many of the organs within are covered with visceral peritoneum.
There are Mesentary FOLDS of visceral/parietal peritoneum that suspend organs (or attach some organs to others; its holding this stuff in place)?
What are the names of the 5 MESENTARY FOLDS of visceral/parietal PERITONEUM ?
(think: FGLMM)
the 5 MESENTARY FOLDS of peritoneum:
(Think: FGLMM)

1. Falciform Ligament (white stripe/on front of liver)
2. GREATER Omentum
3. LESSER Omentum
4. Mesentery Proper
5. Mesocolon
What kind of epithelium is in the lUMEN of the ESOPHAGUS?
Stratified Squamous
What are the 4 valves that are controlling the flow of food?
4 valves:

1. CARDIAC Sphincter
2. Pyloric Sphincter
3. Iliocecal Valve
4. Anal Sphincter
What would you call the SPHINCTER that is close to the heart?
Cardiac Sphincter
What do you call the SPHINCTER (think: where the food piles up?
(it doesn't really but helps you to remember it )
What is the Valve called that is located between the Ilium and the Secum?
Iliocecal valve
What are the 3 sections of the SMALL INTESTINE? (DJI)

(think: Dow Jones Industrial; it goes in that order) Think....a SMALL gut feeling about a stock!
3 sections/regions of the SMALL INTESTINE: (DJI)

1. Duodenum
2. Jejunum
3. Ileum
In the Digestive System, What is the PANCREAS doing?
The Pancreas is releasing pancreatic juices into the Duodenum via the pancreatic duct!

The PANCREAS makes pancreatic enzymes that breaks down lipids, carbs & proteins!

The duodenum is in the small intestine
What does the Gallbladder do?
Gallbladder stores bile.
What is one of the main job of bile?

***What is the main enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates from your Salivary glands?
Know for test!
Name the 3 Salivary Glands?
3 Salivary Glands

1. Parotid Gland (Salivary)
2. Sublingual Gland (Salivary)
3. Submandibular Gland (Salivary)
How many permanent teeth should you have?
32 permanent teeth
How many baby (deciduous) teeth should you have?
20 baby (deciduous) teeth
For baby & adult teeth: think 20/32
The wisdom teeth are called the 3rd molars and they are the molars in the way back (posterior) of your mouth.
For test know the names & be able to identify on models in lab:

1. Incisors
2. canines (aka: cuspids and or eye tooth)
3. premolars (aka: bicuspid)
4. molars
What is the hardest substance in the body?
ENAMEL = is the hardest substance in the body
Is the enamel alive? Is enamel organic?
NO, enamel is NOT alive.

Enamel is mostly inorganic!
Is DENTIN alive?
Dentin is alive!
Dentin of teeth is similar to the inorganic portion of bone?
Where is the Apex on the tooth?
apex = Apical Foramen
What is holding the tooth to the bone?
Periodontal ligament = is holding the teeth to the bone.
What does the EPIGLOTTIS close over?
The Epiglottis closes over the LARYNX = Voluntary control
TRUE! The Superior 1/3 of esophagus is skeletal muscle (Tunica Muscularis)
The ESOPHAGUS has Tunica Muscularis on the superior 1/3 (which is skeletal muscle) and it has Tunica ADVENTITIA (not tunica serosa) on the outer tunica layer and is about 1 ft long?
The Tunica Muscularis Externa has 3 layers of muslces. What are those 3 layers called in the stomach?
3 layers of Tunica Muscularis Externa in the STOMACH are:

1. longitudinal muscle = (outer layer)
2. circular muscle = (middle layer)
3. oblique muscle = (innermost layer)
Inside of the stomach, What are the RUGGED looking BUMPS called?
Inside the Stomach on The Tunica MUCOSA layer, there are folds/bumps when "EMPTY." These bumps/folds are called _______ ?
In the Digestive system, what are the PITS called in the Gastric region (stomach)?
On microscope slide:
If you see STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS in your digestive system, where are you at?
Esophagus = stratified squamous
On microscope slide:
if you see pitts, where would you be?
HINT: pitts on microscope slide = are in the stomach = gastric pits
For the digestive system, On microscope slide:
If you see LONG VILLI, where would you be?
LONG VILLI on microscope slide = Small Intestine= on the PLICA
On the lacteal model in lab:

This is a good place to show all 4 Tunica layers of the small intestine and the Muscularis Mucosa:
1. Tunica Mucosa + Muscularis Mucosa
2. Tunica Submucosa
3. Tunica Muscularis externa
4. Serosa
On microscope slide:
for COLON, it is a little harder to tell a part because it does look a little bit like ____(stuff?); IT DOES NOT HAVE GASTIC PITS and it has TONS of GOBLET CELLS
HINT: Colon on microscope slide = you'll see tons of GOBLET CELLS = COLON

(But NO pit in colon)
Know CHIEF cells and PARIETAL cells!
1. Chief cells = make pepsinogen

2. Parietal cells = make HCL

*Parietal cells are a precurser to pepsin. (pepsin breaks down protein!)
Which cell makes HCL? Parietal cell or Chief cell?
PARIETAL Cell makes HCL= helps break down the PROTEIN
Does your stomach make an acid?
The stomach makes the acid = HCL
Which cell makes the pepsinogen, Parietal cell or Chief Cell?
CHIEF CELLS make Pepsinogen = which helps break down PROTEIN once it gets turned into pepsin.

pepsinogen + HCL = Pepsin

(think: football kansas city CHIEFS; they pour PEPSI over the coaches head. Think Chief = pepsinogen)
What turns Pepsinogen into pepsin?
pepsinogen + HCL = Pepsin
For the small intestine you can say any one of these 3 things:
______, _________, _______ for small intestine:
You can say one of the 3 things for small intestine:

1. pancrease =dumps in pancreatic enzyme= breaks down lipids, carbs, protein.
2. brush border enzymes are in there = breaks down PROTEINS, carbs & lipids,
3. Bile = emulisifies fats= comes from the liver
In the SMALL INTESTINE, 90% of nutrient absorption is happening in the JEJUNUM?
What is this called?
It contains: Plicae, Villi, Microvilli to increase surface area, releases hormones, this is called?
Small Intestine
What are the names of the all the parts and pieces to the Large Intestine?
(think: CCRAAT)
Parts to the LARGE INTESTINE: (think: CCRAAT)

1. Cecum
2. Colon = (ascending, transverse, descending & sigmoid)
3. rectum
4. anal canal
5. appendix and Taeniae ligament
In the LARGE Intestine:
What are the 4 sections of the of COLON ?
4 SECTIONS of the COLON (in the Large Intestine) are:

1. Ascending Colon
2. Transverse Colon
3. Descending Colon
4. Sigmoid Colon

**Taeniae Coli ligament is the line that you see on top of these sections of the colon!
What is the name of the ligament that runs longitudinal along the large intestine/colon?
Taeniae Coli ligament = is the ligament that runs longitudinal on the large intestine!
On the large intestine/colon, What are the structures that look like OUT POCKETS, looks like a little house?
How many layers of muscles (Tunica Muscularis externa layer) do you have around the stomach? Name them!
3 layers of muscle of the stomach = Tunica Muscularis externa layer.

1. longitudinal muscle
2. circular muscle
obligue muscle
The mucuos layer protects epithelia of stomach from "STOMACH ACIDS"?
Fluid leaving the stomach is called what?
ACID CHYME is the fluid leaving the stomach!
In the Small Intestine, Where are 90% of nutrient absorption taking place in?
In the small intestines, Mucus & Buffers neutralizes "ACID CHYME"?
In the small intestines, the DUODENJUM (10 in long) receives digestive juices from what 2 organs?
liver and pancreas
Do valves regulate passage of material from one segment to segment?
There are 4 valves (sphincters), name them:
1. Cardiac Sphincter
2. Pyloric Sphincter
3. iliocecal Valve
4. Anal sphincter
Can you live without your appendix?
Yes, you can live without your appendix!
List 3 functions of the LIVER.
3 functions of the liver are:

1. Metabolic Regulation
2. Hematological regulation
3. Synthesis of bile/bile salts
Most of the blood going into the LIVER is coming from the HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN which is low in 02 (deoxygenated) and it is
high in nutrients.
The liver is regenerative?
The GALLBLADDER stores and increases the concentration of bile:
Name the 3 ducts involved with this process?
1. Common Hepatic Duct
2. Common Bile Duct
3. Cystic Duct
What is the PANCREAS doing in the digestive system, what does it release?
For the digestive system:
The Pancreas is releasing pancreatic juices into the duodenum via the pancreatic duct.
What are 3 things that the pancreatic enzyme break down?
The pancreatic enzyme breaks down:
1. carbohydrates
2. protein
3. lipids.
The majority of PANCREASE has digestive EXOCRINE function?
Know what enzymes go where...
Oral cavity:

oral cavity = SALIVARY GLANDS make AMYLASE that break down CARBOHYDRATES.
Know what enzymes go where...
(know these!!!!)
*CHIEF CELLS make PEPSINOGEN which helps break down PROTEIN
*PARITETAL CELLS helps make HCL and helps
break down the PROTEIN.
Know what enzymes go where...
SMALL INTESTINE (in the duodenum)
small intestine = in duodenum:
pancrease makes pancreatic enzymes that breaks downs PROTEINS, lipids, and carbohydrates .
Know what enzymes go where...
Small intestine (in the ileum)
small intestines in the ileum:

from the gallbladder dumps in Bile & EMULSIFIES fats (LIPIDS)
Inside the stomach:

*Pepsinogen + HCL = PEPSIN
*Pancreatic juice, brush border enzymes & bile are released into the duodenum?
What are the 3 vessels make up the HEPATIC TRIAD?
3 vessels make the HEPATIC TRIAD ARE:

1. Hepatic Portal Vein
2. Hepatic Arterial
3. bile duct
Liver cells are called Hypatocytes. What do hepatocytes make?
Hypatocytes make bile!

FYI on the liver:
Lobules comprised of rows of Hepatocytes arranged radially around a central vein
Hepatocytes surround blood sinusoids (capillary structures).
Plates of cells called in the liver.....??
Hepatic plate???
What is making insulin & glucagon?
Urinary system (file 3 @ 27 min)
Which kidney is lower, the right or left kidney?
The RIGHT KIDNEY is inferior to the left kidney.
****Can you live with only 1 KIDNEY?
YES! You can live with 1 kidney but it is better to have 2 kidneys!
The Kidneys are surrounded by 3 Connective tissue layers. What are they?
kidney are surrounded by 3 C.T. layers:

1. Renal Capsule (innermost layer)
2. Perirenal fat (middle layer)
3. Renal Fascia
Which Connective Tissue layer holds the kidneys in place against the posterior body wall?
RENAL FASCIA = is the C.T. layer that anchors the kidneys in place!
Women are more prone to bladder infections?
90% of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI's) are from what bacteria?
UTI's are usually from the bacteria E-coli.

Female Bladder infections affects the TRIGONE area of the BLADDER; they are more susceptible to UTI's..
What happens if the prostate gland swells?
if the prostate gland swells, you can't go to the bathroom!
In the Urinary system, what does micturition mean?
micturition = means the removal of metabolic wastes= URINATION
What are the 5 functions of the Urinary System? (think: MRRSP)
5 functions of the Urinary System: (MRRSP)

1. Micturation= removal of metabolic wastes (urine)
2. Regulates = ionic CONCENTRATION of plasma by controlling the amount lost in the urine.
3. Regulates = blood VOLUME/pressure by controlling the amount of urine produced
4. Stimulates RBC production (EPO hormone makes erythrocytes (RBC's)).
5. pH balance = removal of ammonia in the urine
Functions of the urinary system are all done by kidneys by homeostasis:

Kidneys REGULATE: the VOLUME, CONCENTRATION, content of blood, pH and removes toxins/wastes from the body!

*** the kidneys Eliminate metabolic wastes as urine
4 different process' that are going on or occur in the kidneys, name them.
Urine formation involves: Filtration, reabsorption & secretion.

1. Filtration (happens inside bowman's capsule)
2. Reabsorption (nephron to blood)
3. Secretion (capillaries to nephron)

4.Excretion (from nephron = out the body = peeing)
What happens inside the BOWMAN'S Capsule?
The capillaries are putting stuff into the nephron, which process is this?
The capillaries are taking stuff back from the nephron, which process is this?
The nephron is getting it out of the body by urinating (peeing), what process is this?
After leaving the kidneys, where does the urine go?
The urine goes through the ureters to the urinary bladder, where it is stored until urination occurs. From there, it travels through the urethra before exiting the body.
Can you reabsorb glucose?
Yes, you can reabsorb glucose
T he FUNCTIONAL unit of the kidneys is the "Nephron"?
True! The NEPHRON is the functional unit of the kidneys!

Nephron = renal corpuscle + renal tubules

**there are 1.25 million nephrons per kidney!
What does the Nephron do?
In the NEPHRON, URINE is FORMED and the BLOOD is FILTERED to remove wastes, toxins & ions inside the nephrons.

The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys!
The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of the ________?
Nephron loop
Draw & label the 6 main parts to the NEPHRON!
6 main parts of the NEPHRON:

1. Renal Corpuscle
2. PROMIXAL Convoluted tubule
4. Loop of Henle
5. DISTAL convoluted tubule
6. Collecting Duct
Renal Corpuscle = Bowman's capsule + Glomerus

the process of filtration occurs at the renal corpuscle
What is the function of the Proximal convoluted tubule?
ABSORPTION is the primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule.
The GLOMERUS is a cluster of capillaries inside the Nephrons?
What does the Glomerus do?
The blood that exits the glomerus enters the nephron to start filtering!

(removal of wastes)
What is significant about the GLOMERULAR EPITHELIUM?
Glomerular epithelium = it consists of PODOCYTES (large cells) with "FEET" that wrap around the glomerular capillaries.
Do you absorb 100% of glucose in a healthy patient?
Yes, a healthy patient absorbs 100% of glucose!
In a patient with DIABETES (aka: insipidious), glucose can leak out and get excreted out in the urine.
The helium is a site for entry/exit for the renal artery & Vein.
How are the KIDNEYS held in place?
RENAL FASCIA = the C.T. that holds the kidneys in place against the posterior body of the wall.
Each kidney is protected by the ______?
perirenal fat only
The anatomy of the Kidney:
1. Renal Cortex (outer area)
2. Renal Medulla (inner part)
3. Renal Capsule (C.T. at the very end of the kidney)
The GLOMERUS is in the Renal CORTEX!
On the KIDNEY, what do you call the pieces that look like a PYRAMID?

(they are in the Renal Medulla)
The LOOP of HENLE, Renal PYRAMIDS & the Renal COLUMNS are in the Renal MEDULLA?
True! The Loop of Henle, the renal columns & the renal pyramid are all in the Medulla
on the Kidney, what do you call the COLUMNS in between the pyramids?
The glumerous has PODOCYTES?
What are the CELLS that are NEXT TO the GLUMEROUS?
JG APPARATUS CELLS are in the JG apparatus which are located next to the glomerous!
What does the JG APPARATUS make/secrete?
(1 hormone & 1 enzyme)
JG APPARATUS makes/secretes (1 hormone & 1 enzyme):
1. Renin = enzyme
2. EPO = hormone
If your blood pressure if low, what changes will you see in your kidneys?
The kidneys will absorb more water, release EPO and release RENIN.
On the AFFERENT ARTERIOLE, is there smooth muscle around it?
Yes! There is smooth muscle around the afferent arteriole.

***this is under AUTONOMIC CONTROL; this will AFFECT the diameter of the vessel and it will affect how much filtration is going on
There are TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM in Mucosa of the URETERS and in the urinary bladder?
True! This allows for stretching
The Urethra is controlled by 2 sphincters muscles, name them!
1. Internal Urethral sphincter = involuntary control = (smooth muscles) = sympathetic control!

2. External Urethral sphincter = Voluntary control = (skeletal muscles)
The EXTERNAL Uretheral spincter in under VOLUNTARY control.
Explain how the lining of the bladder allows the bladder to become distended.
The mucosa lining of the urinary bladder is thrown into FOLDS, called RUGAE, that allow the bladder to stretch when it is full.
Identify the purpose of the RUGAE in the urinary bladder?
The RUGAE in the urinary bladder allow it to expand as it fills with urine.
What is the name of the muscle around the bladder:
It has 3 layers of smooth muscle called_______ that
goes around the bladder?
"Detrussor Muscle" = 3 layers of smooth muscle in bladder!
What is that triangular area inside the bladder called?
The parasympathetic control contracts the Detrusor muscle to empty the urinary bladder.
What is the significance of the slit-like openings of the entrance of the ureters into the bladder?
The shape (slit-like) PREVENTS urine BACKFLOW toward the ureters when the urinary bladder contracts.
The following are a normal component of urine:
1. Hydrogen ions
2. large proteins
3. salts
How much glucose gets reabsorbed in a normal person?
100% of Glucose gets reabsorbed
How much water gets reabsorbed in a normal person?
99% of water gets reabsorbed
What would happen if you don't have the hormone ADH?
NO ADH = You would go to the bathroom a lot more to urinate!
the Renal Arteries branch into the SEGMENTAL artery which leads to each lobe in the kidneys!
Male Reproductive System (file 5 minutes)
What are the functions of the Reproductive system?
functions of the reproductive system are:

1. Production of GAMETES (reproductive cells) & HORMONES
2. Fertilization

3. MALE = (sperm production, transport of sperm to the uterus.)

4. FEMALE = (ova production, fusion of gametes. development of the zygote)

The MALE URETHRA is part of 2 systems:
Urinary System
Reproductive systems.
What do interstitial cells of the TESTIS release?
Know where these 3 areas are located on the male:
1. Prostatic urethra
2. Membranous urethra
3. Spongy Urethra
In the TESTIS, if you were able to stretch out the Seminiferous tubule in men, it would stretch out to about 1 mile long. This allows men to produce about 500 million sperm per day!
Where is sperm made?
In the Seminiferous tubules of the TESTIS = is where SPERM is made!
How much sperm can males make per day?
~500 million sperm are made daily!
For the male reproductive tract, which is the FIRST MAJOR organ ?
Epididymis = 1st major organ
What is the job of the epididymis?
epididymis = it stores sperm
The Ductus Deferns (aka: Vas deferns) can STORE SPERM for MONTHS.
What structures make up the body of the SPERMATIC CORD?
The ductus deferns, testicular blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics make up the body of the spermatic cord.
Is there a blood testis barrier?

There is a blood testis barrier because you want the sperm develop sperm NOT to be EXPOSED to the IMMUNE SYSTEM.
****What MAINTAINS the blood testis barrier?
NURSE CELLS (aka: sustentacular cells)
In sperm production, is the final product going to be HAPLOID or DIPLOID
What is the tail on the sperm called?
Flagella = tail on sperm
In the male reproductive system:
Does the URETHRA or URETER release sperm outside of the body?
Urethra = releases sperm outside of the body!
For the Male reproductive system:
There are 3 glands (accessory glands) that contribute fluid to the ejaculate, name them!
3 accessory glands in the MALE reproductive system:

1. Prostate Gland
2. Bulbourethral Glands
3. Seminal Gland (on back/posterior of bladder) =
The 3 accessory glands produce secretions that make up the majority of the semen volume. It activate the sperm where the flagella become functional, it provides NUTRIENTS for the sperm cells and it provides pH buffers for the semen.
1. Seminal gland = 60% of semen volume
2. Prostate gland = 30% of semen volume
3. Bulbourethral glands = 5% of semen volume
In Males:
In sperm development, 3 hormones are helping sperm production & inhibin stops sperm procuction.
What are the 3 hormones in sperm development?
3 hormones involved in sperm development:
1. FSH
In the male, what does the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) do?
FSH in the male = supports sperm production
What do Interstitial cells of the TESTIS make & do ?
interstitial cells of the testis make/releases a HORMONE = TESTOSTERONE
In the male, The SEMINALPLASMIN is secreted from the PROSTATE gland and it acts like an ANTIBIOTIC to prevent urinary tract infections?

*this is why males are less prone to bladder infections!
Who is more prone to an inguinal hernia, males or females?
Males are more prone to hernia's
During the descent of testes, What is the name of the very short C.T. cord (and muscle) that is attached to testes & anchored in scrotum?
Gubernaculum testis = short C.T. cord that pulls the testes up and draws it down.
When does the descent of the testes normally begin?
The testes normally begin to descend at the 7th developmental month.

What is the name of the condition of undescended testes (when they stay up inside and don't drop)?
Cryptorchid = means hidden testes
The testes are away from the body, why are they down there?
for temperature = it is cooler down below!
How is the location of the testes (outside the peritoneal cavity) important to the production of viable sperm?
the temperature inside the peritoneal cavity is too high for the production of sperm cells. So the testes are located within the scrotal cavity where temperatures are cooler!
FEMALE Reproductive system: (file 5 @ 23 minutes)
in FEMALES; Oocytes are produced in the ovaries at BIRTH, by puberty there are 400,000 oocytes and during the ovarian cycle they mature. But only about 500 oocytes will mature & ovulate during life?
Yes. Thecal Cells make estrogens
oocytes + follicle cells = FOLLICLE
What are the 3 layers to the Uterus?
3 layers to the uterus are:

1. Endometrium (inside layer)
2. Myometrium (muscle layer)
3. Perimetrium (outer layer)
What are the 3 phases of the Uterine cycle?
3 phases of the uterine cycle = ~ 28 day cycles

1. Menes
2. Proliferative phase
3. Secretory phase
Which layer of the uterus is affected by the uterine cycle?
endometrium (the inner layer of the uterus) is affected by the uterine cycle!
Menstruation results in the loss of which layer of the endometrium?
During menstruation, the functional layer of the endometrium is lost.
During the Proliferative phase of menstration cycle, a new functional layer is formed in the uterus due to repair & regrowth of the
endometrium tissue & blood vessels?
About how many days are in the uterine cycle?
~28 days in the uterine cycle
Menstration is usually marked on which day of the uterine cycle?
Day _____ is marked by the mences of the uterine cycle?
MENCES is marked on DAY 1 of the uterine cycle
When does ovulation normally occur from day 1 of the 28 day cycle?
~Day 14 is usually when you ovulate
Which hormone is going to stimulate ovulation?
LH is going to stimulate ovulation!
Name 2 hormones made by the CORPUS LUTEIN?
corpus lutein makes & releases 2 hormones:
1. Progesterone
2. Estrogen
Where does fertilization occur?
Fallopian tube = fertilization occurs
What are the functions of the placenta?
The mom's blood & babies blood are NOT MIXING. (The blood levels are not connected)

The placenta contains the maternal arteries and single umbilical vein, permits nutrient exchange at the chorionic VILLI and synthesizes hormones that are important to the mother & the embryo.
What is the emergency condition called when the spermatic cord gets twisted (this is painful & it shuts off the blood supply)?
What are the 2 names of the erectile tissue?
2 erectile tissues:

1. Corpora Cavernosa
2. Corpus Spongiosum
On the penis, the foreskin is called PREPUCE
foreskin = prepuce
What are those finger like projections on the Fallopian tube?
What are the 3 ligaments surrounding the uterus?
3 ligaments:

1. Suspensory ligament
2. Ovarian ligament
3. Broad ligament
Where do they do pap smears on females?
Cervix = for pap smears to see if there is cervical cancer going on.