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plasma membrane

thin flexible barrier that regulates what enters and exits the cell; composed of two layers of lipids

nuclear envelope

membrane surrounding the nucleus


contains the DNA and controls all of the cell's acitivities


helps to assemble ribosomes


material between the cell membrane and the nucleus


breaks down food to make ATP

endoplasmic reticulum

internal transport system of the cell, modifies proteins, and synthesizes lipids

Golgi apparatus

stack of membranes that modify proteins and creates "packages" to send them to other locations


filled with enzymes to breakdown dead cell parts and foreign objects; only found in animal cells


synthesizes proteins


stores water and nutrients for the cell; very large in plant cells

cell wall

provides structure and support around cell membrane of plants, fungi, and some bacteria


uses sunlight to make carbohydrates in plants, some bacteria and protists


organize the spindle fibers to separate chromosomes during animal cell mitosis


network of proteins in the cytoplasm that help cell maintain its shape


hairlike projections that help some cells move


whiplike structure some cells use for propulsion


projection of cytoplasm that some protists use for movement and feeding


cell without a nucleus, it contains a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes; bacteria


cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles; animals, plants, protists, fungi

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