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Art that is made for social or political causes is always anti-government, never pro-government.


"Beauty" and "pretty" are two different things.


The symbolic meaning of signs, subjects, and images as well as the description and interpretation of them is called ____________.


The criteria for ________ is often based on culturally accepted standards.


An everyday object like a table or bowl cannot be considered art.


Western and non-Western cultures view art and its role in society in exactly the same way.


Some art is made to simply be visually pleasing.


Which of the following are common traits of creative individuals as discussed in the text?

adaptable and innovative
ability to analyze
persistent and productive
curious and sensitive

Some artists do not have any professional art training. This type of artist is often known as a(n) _______ artist.


Trompe l'oeil artworks are very abstract.


The term _______ refers to a particular material, as well as its accompanying type of artwork.


Prehistoric humans needed some artworks to be small and portable because they were nomadic hunter-gatherers.


Humans have been creating art since _________________.

Prehistoric times

Only Christian art has a religious purpose.


Art used to be a teaching tool to communicate stories to the illiterate.


According to the author, the impulse to create art comes from basic human interests in:

creating order and structure.
exploring aesthetic possibilities
constructing images and forms that carry meaning

Content is what a viewer interprets a work to be about, whereas _______ ________ is what the artist depicts in the artwork that the viewer can see and name.

subject matter

A black-and-white photograph of a scene eliminates the hues and intensities of the scene's colors, but captures the _______ of the colors.


The term "chiaroscuro" comes from Italian, and literally means


During the twentieth century, _______ and _______ were added to the visual elements used by artists.

time and motion

Art that physically moves is called _________.

kinetic art

Which of the following types of lines are used to create shading effects?

hatching and cross hatching

In art, shapes that suggest forms found in nature are called _________shapes.


As a visual element, the term "value" refers to

shades of light and dark

Which of the visual elements can best be described as "the path of a moving point?"


Mixing two primary colors produces a __________ color.


The ancient Egyptians developed a standard set of proportions used to create images of the "correct" or "perfect" human, as have many cultures both ancient and modern. This set of proportions was created using___________________.

a squared grid

Rather than depend solely upon visual unity, an artist will sometimes create __________ unity by unifying the ideas in a work of art


Pablo Picasso's Girl Before a Mirror is based in symmetrical balance, but the two sides are not identical mirror images. This composition allows him to explore the traditional theme of


Georgia O'Keeffe's painting Deer's Skull with Pedernal is a prime example of

symmetrical balance

In a two-dimensional work with asymmetrical balance, the appearance of balance is achieved by_________.

distributing visual weight accordingly.

Drawing attention to an area by the contrast of dark and light is one way of demonstrating___________________.

emphasis and subordination

The design principle that is based on repetition is called________________.


Artists will often add __________ to provide interest and enliven the unity of a work of art.


In a two-dimensional work of art that is balanced symmetrically, the implied center of gravity is__________.

along the vertical axis down the center of the composition

The organization of visual elements in two-dimensional art is called__________.


Which of the following are not among the principles of design?

texture and color

The architect Le Corbusier designed the Modulor, a tool he used for calculating human proportions, based upon

golden section

The ancient Roman architect Vitruvius associated the perfected male form with the perfect geometry of

circle and square

How did the Industrial Revolution impact the art world?

Technological advancements gave people more leisure time.
Created a growing middle-class culture.
Technological advancements available to artists.

How did the French Revolution influence the art world?

Public museums were established.
Art changed to meet the tastes of the middle class.

Because of the technological invention of the ___________, artists--especially painters--no longer had to create naturalistic works.


What is the technique of Impressionist painting?

Visible brushstroke.
Impasto (thick layered) paint.

What is the subject matter of Impressionism?

Sensations of light on the outdoors.
Leisure activities of the middle class

What is the content (meaning/purpose) behind Impressionist works?

Visual pleasure
Celebrates scientific discoveries, such as in optics
Joy, optimism of new industrial society

How is Post-Impressionism similar to Impressionism?

Painting techniques are same or similar

How did Post-Impressionism or its practicing artists differ from Impressionism?

Subject matter is more "serious"
Some rejection of industrial society and its values
Wanted more scientific considerations in painting

How did Paul Cezanne influence the Cubists?

depicted same subject matter in various paintings at different times, angles
painted with little planes of color from flat brush
thought composition should be geometrically based

Cubist paintings are meant to be considered foremost in terms of objects in themselves, not a window onto another reality.


What are the characteristics of the Dada movement?

Rejects art world tradition, such as the Salon
Against the established middle-class societal values
Upholds nonsense, absurdity, and outrage

What artist introduced the idea of "ready-mades" in art?

Marcel Duchamp

What is a ready made?

an existing object the artist merely chooses and designates as being art

What questions are meant to be raised by the concept of a ready-made artwork?

How is art "made", and by whom?
Does an "everyday" object have an aesthetic purpose?
Under what conditions, if any, can an object not normally considered a work of art become a work of art?
Who decides what art is, and what qualifies them to determine that?

Which of the following are true of Surrealism's theoretical aspects?

Utilized automatism
Has a dreamlike quality.
Served as window onto another reality
Illogical and nonsensical like Dada
Based on psychological theories

Surrealist works are never naturalistic/representational.


What are the general physical and visual characteristics (how do they look) of Abstract Expressionist artworks?

expressive brushwork
large scale

In general, Abstract Expressionist works were made to convey feelings of _______________.

anxiety fear and lonliness

What similarities are there between Abstract Expressionism and Color Field?

evokes mood in viewer
large format that engulfs viewer

What differences are there between Abstract Expressionism and Color Field?

Color Field had less visible brushwork
Color Field looked less energetic, calmer

How can an artist convey what it would be like to be alive at his/her certain time in history?

by depicting subject matter of the culture in which they live and work
by depicting subject matter common at the time they live and work
by depicting subject matter that is brand new in their time and culture

What previous art movement(s) or artist(s) directly influenced Pop Art?

Robert Raushcenberg
Jasper Johns

How did those previous art movement(s) or artist(s) influence Pop Art or Pop artists?

silkscreening technique had mass-production possibility
by using actual common everyday items in their artworks
by depicting common everyday items in their artworks

How does Pop Art differ from Abstract Expressionism?

Pop Art is emotionally detached
Pop Art is naturalistic/representational or abstract
Pop Art removed expressive brushwork
Pop Art put figure back into artworks

Which of the following are content or theoretical aspects of the Pop Art movement?

emotionally detached/distant
hails luxury and celebrity
celebrates mass-production and abundance

Pop Art focused on:

the huge amount of mass-produced images and objects in American culture.

What does the artist Sol LeWitt do (how does he work) in the making of his artworks, such as Wall Drawing #766?

He writes open, interpretable directions for others to follow.

How is a Sol Lewitt wall drawing realized in a visible/tangible manner?

A group of people carry out the physical drawing process in the chosen location.

How does it appear that Barnett Newman influenced Minimalism and Hard-Edge?

rather clean edges
simplified/economical composition

How do Minimalism and Hard-Edge differ from Abstract Expressionism?

Minimalism and Hard-Edge remove visible brushstroke
Minimalism and Hard-Edge are emotionally detached

How do Minimalism and Hard-Edge differ from Pop Art?

Minimalism celebrates intellect.
Pop Art is figurative while the other two are nonobjective.
Pop Art celebrates American consumerism.

How are Minimalism and Hard-Edge similar theoretically to Pop Art?

they are all emotionally detached
they all believe the art object is important

How are Minimalism and Hard-Edge similar artistically/visually to Pop Art?

clean edges
any colors are flattened to emphasize surface

How are the techniques used in Minimalism similar to those of Pop Art?

imitate or use industrial means

How do Minimalism and Hard-Edge differ from Conceptual Art?

Minimalism and Hard-Edge consider an art object the most important thing
Minimalism and Hard-Edge remove the figure from art

How is Donald Judd's work method similar to Sol LeWitt's?

They both send directions off to others for a work to be created

How is Donald Judd's work method different from Sol LeWitt's?

Judd sends his work to industrial fabricators.
Judd writes exact instructions for others to follow.
LeWitt writes open, interpretable instructions for others to follow.

The predecessor of the graphite pencil, especially popular during the Renaissance, is_________.


The two broad categories into which traditional drawing materials are typically divided are _______.

dry and liquid media

The coloring material in virtually all drawing media is known as__________.


Artists use burned sticks of wood in order to produce ________.

charcoal drawings

Historically in silverpoint, lines were drawn with a silver __________ onto a surface coated with bone dust.


The main difference between crayons and chalks is that____________________.

they are made with different binders.

The __________ are credited with the invention of paper around 5 C.E.


An example of a liquid medium in drawing is________.

pen and ink

Which of the following media is the most forgiving of mistakes and changes of decision?

graphite pencil

Pen and ink, if used to produce a line quality that varies in thickness is often described as________.


Sol LeWitt's Wall Drawing #766 is an example of______art.


A thick application of paint onto a canvas or other support is called a/an __________.


By the 1950s, this new synthetic paint would challenge oils as the principal painting medium. What is it?


Watercolor's primary characteristic is its_______.


The most celebrated frescoes of the 20th century were from:


__________ is watercolor that has been made opaque by adding inert white pigment to it


After building a canvas and before painting it, a painter generally applies a coat of________.


Which of the following is an example of a nonaqueous medium?

oil paint

The application of paint in very thin layers is called _______.


What is pigment in paint?

powdered color

In fresco painting, a drawing called a __________ is transferred to the prepared surface prior to applying the pigment.


In buon fresco, or true fresco, pigment is mixed with water and applied to__________.

wet plaster

A nonaqueous paint is one that_________.

dissolves in something other than water.

In oil painting, linseed oil acts as_____.

a binder

In 1885, George Eastman did invent __________.

celluloid film

Artists primarily used the camera obscura to____________.

produce naturalistic drawings of the world.

A major difference between the work of a "pure" or "straight" photographer, such as Alfred Stieglitz, and the work of a documentary photographer, such as Dorothea Lange, is________.

the different intentions of each photographer.

A photographer who became dissatisfied with pictorialism and promoted that photography should be true to its own nature rather than trying to imitate painting was___________.

Alfred Steiglitz.

In 1888 the Kodak camera changed the history of photography______________.

by making photography easily accessible to the general public.

Early examples of art photography often imitated

the narrative form of painting.

The Farm Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Agriculture_________________.

paid photographers to document the Great Depression.

The author defines the term __________ as "the supervision by one individual or group over the artistic expression of another individual or group."


The creation of a photographic body of work around an event, place, or culture is known as ________.


The use by artists of the camera obscura (literally dark room) began in_________________.

Italian Renissance

The subtractive process involves


Sculpture in which the subjects project very slightly from the background, much like a coin, is called ________.

low relief

High-relief sculpture is different than low-relief sculpture in that

high-relief projects boldly from the background and elements of high-relief may be in the round, unattached to the background.

Sculptors will often create a "sketch" out of ________ to test ideas before proceeding to their medium of choice.


In sculpture, what is the most popular modeling material?


What is the key difference between the process of lost-wax casting as practiced in ancient times and that same process today?

Today, multiples can be created from the process.

Three basic methods for making a sculpture are:

constructing, casting, and carving.

Contrapposto (meaning counter poise or counterbalance) was developed by ________ as a pose for sculptures of the human figure.

ancient greeks

________ is a sculptural process of bringing together individual pieces, segments, or objects to form a sculpture.


The additive process of sculpture includes

both assembling and modeling.

Casting is known as ______ method.

a replacement or substitution

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