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emerging adulthood

now thought of as a seperate stage of developement emerging adulthood is the period between 18 and 25


refers to the process by which body functions are automatically adjusted to keep our physiological functioning in a state of equilibrium

replacement rate

is the number of births per woman required to maintain a stable populations


refers to recreational activiites and jobs that entail some risk or danger

Extreme sports

are forms of recreation that include apparent risk of injury or death and are attractive and thrilling as a result

Drug Abuse

is drug use to the extent of imparing the users physical or psychological health

Drug Addiction

is evident in a person when the absence of a drug in his or her body produces the drive to ingest more of the drug

Social norms approach

to reducing risky behavoirs uses survey data regaurding the prevalence of risky behavoirs to make emerging adults more aware of social norms

stereotype threat

is the possibiliity that ones behavior may be judged negativiely to confirm another persons prejudiced attitude

Diathesis stress model

is the view that mental disorders are caused by the interaction of a genetic vulnerability with stressful life events.


increasingly common among yound adults in all industrialized countries is the living pattern called cohabitiation in which two unreleated unmarried adults live together in a committed romantic relationship


refers to the gradual physical decline that accompanies aging


is the loss of hearing associated with aging

Invirto fertilization IVF

is a fertitlity treatment in which eggs cells are surgically removed from the woman and ferlized in the lab


which usually occurs around age 51 ovulation and menstration stop and the production of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone

hormone replacement thereapy HRT

is intended to help relieve menopausal symptoms especially in women who experience an abrupt drop in hormone level because their ovaries are surgically removed


or male menopause refers to age related changed in sexual desire, muscle mass, and other physical changes that accompany decreases in testosterone levels.


means death. as a measure of health it usually refers to the number of death each year per thousand memvers of a given population


means disease. as a measure of health, it refers to the rate of diseases of all kinds in given population, which can be sudden and sever or extend over a long time period


refers to a persons inabiliity to perform normal activities of daily life


refers to how healthy and energetic physically, intellectually, and socially, and individual actually feels

general intelligence

is the idea that intelligance is one basic trait, underlying all cogntive abilities according to spearman

seattle logitudinal study

was the first study of adult intellegiance that used a cross sequentional research design

fluid intelligence

is made up of those basic mental abilities inductive reasoning, abstract thinking, short tem memory, speed of thinking and the like required for understanding any subject matter

crystalized intelligence

is the accumulation of facts, information and knowledge that comes with education abd experiance within a particular culture

selective optimization with compensation

describes the tendancy of adults to select certain aspects of their lives to focus on, and optimize, in order to compensate for declines in other areas

selective expert

is someone who is notably more skilled and knowledgeable than the average person about whichever activities are personally meaningful

social clock

represents the culturally set timetable that estabilished when various events and behavoird in life are appropriate and called for.

midlife crisis

a oncepopular myth, the midlife crisis is a period of unusual anxiety, radical self reexamination, and sudden tranformation that is widely associated with middle age but has more to do with developemnet history than with chronological age.

ecological niche

refers to the lifestyle and social context adults settle into that are compatible with their individual personalilty needs and interests.

gender convergence

is the tendency of the sexes to become more similar as women and men move through middle age


is the idea that family members should support one another because family unity is more important than individual freedom and success

fictive kin

refers toa person who becomes accepted as part of a family to which he or she has no blood relation

empty nest

refers to the time in the lives of parents when their grown children have left the home to puruse their own lives


are caregivers who celebrate family achievements gather the family together and keep in touch with family members who have moved away

sandwich generation

middle aged adults were once commonly referred to as the sandwich generation because of the false belief that they are often squeezed by the needs of the younger and older gnereations

relative deprivation

is the idea that peoples satisfaction is determined by comparing themselves to others in their group

extrinsic rewards of work

include salary, health insurance, pension, and other tangible benefits

intrinsic rewards of work

include job satisfaction satisfaction self esteem and other intangible benefits.


is a skilled and knowledgeable person who adivises or guides an inexperienced person


refers to a work schedule that is flexible so that workers can balance their personal and employemnet responbilities.


is working at home and using electronics means of keeping in touch with the office


are situations events experiences or other stimuli that cause a person to feel stressed

allostatic load

refers to the total burden of stress and illness that a person must cope with

organ reserve

is the capacity of the bodys organs to allow the body to cope with unusual stress

problem focused coping

often used by younger adults, problem focused coping occurs when a person attempts to change a stressor in order to reduce its impact.

emotion-focused coping

often used by older adults, emotion focused coping occurs when a person changes how they feel about a stressor rather than attempting to change the stressor directly


is prejudiced against older people


is a condescending way of speaking to older adults that resembles baby talk, using simple sentences, a slower rate, higher pitch and repetitition

young old

most of americas elderly can be classified as young old, meaining that they are healthy and vigorous, relatively well off financially, well integrated into the lives of their families and communities and politically active.

old old

older people who are classified as old old are those who suffer sever physical mental or social problems in later life

oldest old

elderly adults who are classifed as oldest old are dependent on others for almost everything

population pyramid

graphically represents the entire population as a series of stacked bars in which each bar represents a different age cohort, with the youngest cohort at the bottom

dependency ratio

is the ratio of self sufficient productive adults to children and elderly adults in a given population

compression of morbidity

researchers who are interested in improving the health of the elderly focus on a compression of morbidity, that is , a limiting of the time any person spends ill or infirm

primary aging

refers to the universal and irreversible physical changes that occur as people get older

secondary aging

refers to changes that are more common as people age but are causede by health habits, genes, and other influences that vary from person to person

cardiovascular disease

refers collectively to the various diseases that affect the heart and the circulatory system

maximum life span

is the max number of years that a particular species is genetically programmed to live. for humans the maximum life span is approx 122 years

average life expectancy

is the number of years the average newborn in a particular population is likely to live


is a person who is 100 years old or older

calorie restriction

is the practise of limiting dietary energy intake while still consuming sufficient vitamins, minerals and other important nutrients in an effor to slow down aging

ecological validity

is the idea that memory should be measured vie everyday tasks rather than in lab tests

control processes

include memory and retrieval strategies, selective attention, and rules or strategies for problem solving


is severly impaired judgement memory or problem solving ability that is irreversible and caused by organic brain damage or disease.

alzheimer disease

a progessive disorder that is the most common form of dementia, is characterized by plaques and tangles in the cerebral cortex that destroy normal brain functioning

vascular dementia or multiinfarct dementia

which accounts for about 15% of all dementia, occurs because an infarct, or temporary obstruction of the blood vessels prevents a sufficient supply of blood from reaching an area of the brain. it is characterized by sporadic and progressive loss of brain functioning also call MULTIINFARCT DEMETIA

frontal lobe dementia


frontotemperal lobar degeneration

is a form of dementia characterized by personality changes caused y damage to the frontal lobe of the brain, also called frontotemperal lobar degeneration

self actualization

characterized by aesthetic and spiritual understanding, self actualization is the final stage in maslows heirarchy of needs

life review

an older person attempts to put his or her life into perspective by recalling and recounting various aspects of life to members of the younger generations.

Erik Erikson theory


sel theories

such as eric erickson theory, focus on the core self, or the search to maintain ones integretity and identity

Erik Erikson Intergrity versus despair

the final stage of developement according to erik erikson is integrity versus despair, in which older adults seek to integrate their unique experiences with their vision of community

continuity theory

of aging each person copes eith late adulthood in much the same way that he or she coped with earlier periods of life

positivity effect

is the tendency for elderly people to perceive, prefer, and remember positive experiences and images more than negative ones.

stratification theories

emphasize that social forces limit individual choices and affect the ability to function

disengagement theory

ageing results in role relinquishment, social withdrawl, and passivity

activity theory

is the view that older people remain active in a variety of social spheres and become withdrawn only unwillingly

age in place

many elderly people prefer to age in place by remaining in the same home and community adjusting but not leaving when their health declines.

natually occuring retiremetn communities NORC

are neighborhoods or apartment complexes created by elders who moved to the location as younger adults and never left.


american association of retired persons, is the major organization representing elderly adultts in the u.s.

filial responsibility

is the idea that adult children are obligated to care for their aging parents.

frail elderly

are the minority of adults over age 65 who are physically infirm. very ill, or cognitively impaired

activities of daily life ADLs

in determintg fragilty gerontologist often refer to the activities of daily living which comprise five tasks, eating, bathing, toileting, dressing and transferring from a bed to a chair

instrumental activities of dailly life IADLs

are actions that are important to independent living and require some intellectual competance and forethough such as shopping for food, paying bills, and taking medication

assisted living

is an intemediate form of eldr care that provides some of the privacy and independence of living at home, along with some medical supervision


is the study of death and dying

terror management theory TMT

people adopt cultural values and moral principles in order to cope with their fear of death

near death experience

is an episode in which a person comes close to dying but survives and reports having left his or hery body and having moved toward a bright white light while feeling peacefulness and joy

good death

is one that is peaceful, quick and painless, and that occurs at the end of a long life, in the company of family and friencs and in familiar surroundings


is an institution or program in which terminally ill patients receive palliatiative care

palliative care

such as that provided in a hospice, is care that relieves suffering while safegaruding the persons dignity

double effect

is a situation in which medication has the intended effect of releiving a dying persons pain and the secondary effect of hastening death.

1as tom helped himself to a 4th beer, he announced to everyone at the barbacue that alcohol is healthy in does the text define modertion

no more than two drinks of moderate size per day

aunt judith is playing cards with her group of friends. they are all at least 60 years of age. what characteristics of senescence do they all have in common

their faces have noticable wrinkles

because of their skepticism college graduates tend to think more narrowly and rigidly than those who did not attend college


currently in the u.s. the percentage of overweight is

66 percent

david is 50 years old and can hear well enough to understand a whisper spoken three feet away. in a sample of 50 year old men, david would be in

the majority

diseases and chronic conditions associated with aging

may be strongly affected by lifestyle

drug use usually decreases by the earl 20s


early studies of adult intelligence led researchers to the conclusion that intelligence in adulthood

peaks at about age 18 remains stable until the mid 20s and declines thereafter

form a biologyical perspective women should try to concieve before age ---- and men before age---


hal has consumed large quanitiites of alcohol for the past 30 years. he is at risk for a disease marked by irreversible brain damamge know as

wernike-korsakoff syndrome

harry is 65 years old and can hear well enough to understand a whisper spoken three feet away in a sample of 65 year old men harrys hearing would be

about average

how do friends differ from family members

friends are chosen for qualities that make them good companions

if you were to ask 22 year old college student how she feels about premaritial sex, and she agrees with the majority of her peers she would say that premarital sex is


in the u.s. emerging adults are less likely to live at home than those in some other cultures. which of the following is true

they are still likely to recieve financial support from their parents.

infertility is defined as unable to conceive after trying for at lest what period of time

12 months

jacks mother had schizophrenia, so jace war raised by his grandparents, now jack experiences streess due to his new job and his grandfathers unexpected death. he is beginning to display symptons of schizophrenia. the manifestation of thes symptoms is best explained by which developemental concept

the diatheses-stress model

jessica is 21 years old. how is her circle of friends likely to differ from that og her mother when she wsa jessicas age

jessicas circle of friends is more likely to include both males and females

jim couldnt understand why he kept slowly gaining weight, he wanst eating any more than usual and he maintained he regular excercise routine. what explains his weight gain

his metabolism slowed down by a 3rd between emerging and late adulthoood.

katherine age50 and her daughter lisa age 20 have recently taken jobs as waitresses. compared to lisa katherine will probably

employ more time management strategies

martha was a 21 year old girl living in the u.s in the early 1800s suzanne is a 21 year old girl living in the u.s. in 2008 what is a primary developement difference between these two young women

suzanne is not under pressure to bear as many children as possible as martha was

most developmentalists agree that cohabitation before marriage can strengthen a relationship and ensure a happy marriage.


on the international average lauren can expect to live how many years longer than her husband

5 years

one biological reason why women tend to live longer, healtheir lives is that

the second x chromosome or extra estrogen protects them

perlmutters interviews with restaruant mangers revealed that older employees did better on the job because they

comobined several tasks when possible

reasearchers on obesity agree that in middle age

metabolism slows down by about a third

reasearch studies on alcool use have shown that

moderate use of alcohol may increase longevitiy

schies cross sequential research on intellecutual developemnet demonstrated that

individuals improve in most mental abililties during adulthood and then experience a gradual decline

someone asks you whether or not an individualsd personality emains stable from chilhood through adulthood. based on info in the text on personality patterns how owuld you answer

personality is both contiunous and discontinuous

1the first visible signs of senescence may be observed in the


the idea that intelligence always declines throughout adulthood was

supported by early cross sectional studies

the main least liekly to experience male menopause is

bob who is 55 and has decided to retire early.

the most basic statistic reagding health--- refers to the number of deaths each year per 1000 members of a population, while--- is measured of acute chronic illnesses

mortality; morbidity

the use of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection in a typical IVF cycle is especially useful when

a man is HIV positive and a women is HIV negative

the world leader in both the obesity epidemic and he diabetes epidemic is

the united states

thinking may become more --- and --- with each year of college

reflective and expansive

those with college degrees on average have higher incomes years in college also corelate with better

health --

todays emerging adults have--- sexual partners and --- babies than emerging adults of only a few years ago

more; fewer

to test fluid intelligence a psychologist would be likely to measure

inductive reasoning

what happes in the brain of emerging adults as he or she continues to gain life experience

new dendrites are formed, while unused neurons disappear

what percentage of emerging adults in the u.s have had at least one STD


what percentage og u.s.adults eat three daily servings of vegtables


what two things can best prevent the decline in exercise

friendship with people who exercise and public policies

when developmentalist use the term expert they usually mean a person who

is significantly better than others at performing a certain task

which of the following characterizes integrated adults

they are able to regulate emotions and logic

which of the following age groups reports the lowest rates of chronic illness


which of the following is a true statement about hormone replacement theray

researchers now believe that the studies demonstrating its effects were invalid

which of the following is a true statement about male menopause

men suffer from sudden stress related shifts in hormone levels

which of the following is true regarding the self esteem of emerging adults

in spite of the new challenges and stressors that they face their self esteem is higher than earleir and continures to rise throughout emerging adulthood.

which of the following groups is most likely to report having gotten drunk or smoked cigerettes in the past 30 days


which of the following pheneomena have contributed to the problem worldwide spread of seculaly tranmitted infections

easy access to global travel and technology

which of the following refers to the bodys natural adjustment to any disruptions


which of the following statements is true regarding the overall health and longevity of emerging adults

worldwide emerging adults can now expect to live longer healtheir lives than a few decades ago

which of the following statistics is true of schizophrenia

it is more common in males than females

who will most liekly have marked symptoms of meonpause

norma, who just had a hysterectomy

a factor that contributes to good relationships between todays middle aged adults and their parents is the

health and economic freedom that allow older adults to be independent

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