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AP US History- Colonial America
Terms in this set (36)
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
Captain John Smith
Admiral of New England, an English soldier, sailor, and author. This person is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, and his brief association with the Native American girl Pocahontas during an altercation with the Powhatan Confederacy and her father, Chief Powhatan. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony (based at Jamestown) between September 1608 and August 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay. "He who does not work shall not eat."
A colony established by the English Pilgrims, or Seperatists, in 1620. The Seperatists were Puritans who abandoned hope that the Anglican Church could be reformed. Plymouth became part of Massachusetts in 1691.
Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom.
English Protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. They founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629.
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
Massachusetts Bay colony
One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
"City on a Hill"
Biblical ideal, invoked by John Winthrop, of a society governed by civil liberty (where people did only that which was just and good) that would be an example to the world
VA House of Burgesses
the Virginia Company sought to encourage settlement in Jamestown by guaranteeing the colonists the same rights in England, including the right to be represented in the lawmaking process. As a result, in 1619, 12 years after the colony's founding, the House of Burgesses was established (also the first year that African slaves arrived in the New world). This was the first representative assembly in America. This played a large role in the Colony's development, and was a step toward a larger, more centralized government.
an unincorporated business owned by a single person who is responsible for its liabilities and entitled to its profits
title was Lord Baltimore; founded Maryland as a haven for Catholics
Act of Toleration (1649)
Passed in Maryland, it guaranteed toleration to all Christians but decreed the death penalty for those, like Jews and atheists, who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. Ensured that Maryland would continue to attract a high proportion of Catholic migrants throughout the colonial period.
an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.
The Virginia Company's system in which settlers and the family members who came with them each received 50 acres of land
A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years.
An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson.
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preach a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
European government policies of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
Europe sent fine goods to Africa, which sent slaves to North America, which sent raw material to Europe
A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
The First Great Awakening
Fervent religious revival movement in the 1720s through the 40s that was spread throughout the colonies by ministers like New England Congregationalist Jonathan Edwards and English revivalist George Whitefield. Was a period of heightened religious activity in the British North American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s.
powerful preacher during Great Awakening, his message was of hell and an angry God. 'Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God."
Puritan theologian, who urged the inoculation against smallpox, played a role in Salem Witch Trials
Wave of hysteria swept through Massachusetts regarding outrageous religious convictions and proposed witchcraft. 150 people arrested, 26 convicted. this changed the dynamics of wealth because the wealthy were accused of witchcraft more often than the poor (if convicted, they lose property)
the freeing of individual enslaved persons
Poor Richard's Almanac
First published in 1732. Written by Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and funny bits of observation and common sense advice (the saying, "Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," first appeared in this almanac). It was the most popular almanac in the colonies.
John Peter Zenger
Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.
French and Indian War (1756-1763)
Part of the Seven Years' War in Europe. Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley and Canada. The Algonquins, who feared British expansion into the Ohio Valley, allied with the French. The Mohawks also fought for the French while the rest of the Iroquois Nation allied with the British. The colonies fought under British commanders. Britain eventually won, and gained control of all of the remaining French possessions in Canada, as well as India. Spain, which had allied with France, ceeded Florida to Britain, but received Louisana in return.
Albany Plan of Union
Plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown.
Peace of Paris (1763)
Ended French and Indian War. The French ceded to Great Britain some of their West Indian islands and most of their colonies in India. Canada, all French territory east of Mississippi to Britain except New Orleans; all land west of Mississippi plus New Orleans to Spain.
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
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