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Hammel - Viral Structure & Pathogenesis
Terms in this set (34)
What is an infectious particle?
What are the 5 viral characteristics?
1. Obligate intracellular parasites
2. has DNA or RNA (not both)
4. vary in size from 20-300nm
5. Specific cell surface receptos determine viral-host cell tropism (type of cell the virus can invade)
What are the steps of Viral Replication? (KNOW)
1. Absorption or attachment to receptors of susceptible cells
2. Penetration (endocytosis or fusion)
3. Uncoating (shedding of capsid)
4. Replication of viral genome
5. Maturation (assembly of virus particles)
6. Release of virions from cells via budding, cell lysis, or exocytosis
1. DNA viruses replicate in the _____.
2. RNA viruses replicate in the ______.
Name the effects on cells:
1. virus destroys cell when it exits the cell
2. formed w/i an infected cell. The cell isn't destroyed like in CPE.
3. host cells coallesce into a single giant cell w/ many nuclei
1. Cytopathic effect
2. Inclusion body
3. Multinucleated giant cells
What are the 4 ways to identify viruses?
1. Direct antigen detection of clinical material by Fluorecent antibody staining
3. Rise in the titer from acute to convalescent stages
4. Nucleic acid hybridization
Viral Pathogenesis: What are the types of infections?
1. Inapparent infection - no signs or symptoms
2. Self-limiting - goes through stages & then stops
3. Lytic infections - WORST type, virus replicates and kill cells
4. Persistent - virus persists for long periods even though you seem to get better (Chronic carrier infections) Can be asymptomatic or result in chronic illness. (Ex: Hep. B, neonatal rubella, CMV)
What is a Latent infection? What are some examples?
Primary acute infection, with a resolution of the disease. Virus persists in a cryptic form until is is reactivated. Symptoms recur as well as virus production; Varicella-zoster, Herpes simplex, CMV, Epstein-Barr
What are the ways of virus transmission?
How can the virus enter the host?
Direct person to person, animal to human, or arthropod vector.
Respiratory route, Gastrointestinal route, sexual route, or skin route.
Describe the stages in viral pathogenesis?
Entry into primary host replication, Spread to target tissues, Incubation period, Cellular damage and clinical illness, and Death or recovery
Antibiotics are used to treat ____.
Bacteria, not viruses
What are some prevention & treatment methods for viruses?
Antiviral chemotherapy, Immunoglobulins (passive immunization), Viral vaccines (active immunization)
What types of vaccine is used for the influenza virus? for Hepatitis B virus?
Subunit vaccine; Purified protein vaccine (a recombinant DNA technology)
There are ___ types of human Adenoviruses, with linear double stranded ___, non-____, and several capsid proteins (____, ____ base & ____ fiber)
42, DNA, non-enveloped, hexon, penton base, penton fiber
Virus attaches via ____ fiber structure or ____ on the tips of viral fibers. Assembly of the virus occurs in the ____ of the cell.
Penton; knobs; nucleus
Viruses are primarily agents of ____ disease and transmitted by the ____ route.
What are 3 ocular disease that can be transmitted by direct inoculation of the eye by virus-contaminated hands, instruments, or bodies of water?
Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), Pharyngoconjunctival fever (PCF) & Acute nonspecific follicular conjunctivitis
Definition: the antibody attaches to the virus & prevents it from attaching to the host cell by blocking receptors.
Neutralization (Long-lasting antibodies are formed that "neutralize" the virus.
What are the 2 types of vaccine given for prevention?
Formalin inactivated vaccine and live attenuated vaccine (given to military recruits only)
These are characteristics of what virus?-- 1.Capsid enveloped in a lipid membrane 2.linear, double stranded DNA, 3.common infections of the skin, mucous membranes, mouth, eye, genital or respiratory tract
4.Can be asymptomatic
5.Primary infection or latent infection
Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2
Describe the replication process of Herpes Simplex Virus.
Virus enters by fusion w/ host cell, DNA becomes associated w/ nucleus, Virus is symthesized in nucleus, budding of nucleocapsids through nuclear membrane, Productively infected cells die. (Then virus comes out & infects others.)
Which Herpes Simplex virus type is contracted mainly above the waist?
below the waist?
HSV1 - above the waist
HSV2 - below the waist
Which herpes type hides in the trigeminal ganglia and can be reactivated (latency)?
Herpes Simplex type 1 is contracted mainly in the _____.
Herpes Simplex type 2 can go to ____ and ____ root ganglia (genital region).
lumbar and sacral root
What are 3 recurrent infections that can happen after Keratoconjunctivitis?
1. Formation of dendritic ulcers
2. Progress to deep stromal keratitis
3. Scarring and loss of vision
Neonatal herpes can spread to the brain and cause ____.
If you have incomplete immunity, you will have _____, therefore _____.
When staining for herpes in the lab, look for ____ inclusion and ____ cells.
Intranuclear inclusions; multinucleated giant cells
What is all involved in Serology?
Neutralizing the antibody, complement fixation and ELISA.
What is the most common drug to inhibit viral DNA synthesis?
Acyclovir *Note: these drugs inhibit the synthesis of DNA; however there are no known drugs that cure a viral infection!
Latency of Varicella-Zoster virus is established in _____ and infections are rapidly _____.
Sensory ganglia; cytocidal (kill host cell quickly)
What is the primary infection in Varicella-zoster virus? the reactivation of latent infection?
Varicella "Chickenpox"; Zoster "Shingles"
What type of lab tests are done on normal patients with Varicella-zoster? and on immunocompromised patients?
None done on normal pts; inoculate tissue cultures & look for CPE (Use of DNA probes)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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Hammel - Fungi, Protozoa, Helminths
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