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Cultural Anthropology final

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Animism
A belief in spirit beings coined by EB Tylor
3 major components of religion
1) beliefs about supernatural powers 2) teachings and traditions that tell us about those powers. 3) rituals intended to influence those powers to benefit the group
Ritual
An organized and stereotyped symbolic behavior intended to influence supernatural powers
Rites of passage
A public ceremony recognizing a person changing group status that often involves pain
Puberty initiation rites
A religious ceremony that symbolically transforms the individual from a child into an adult
Individualistic practices
Religious practices based on personal relationships between specific individuals and supernatural powers
Vision quest
An individual practice in which a person attempts to enlist the aid of supernatural powers by intentionally seeking a dream or vision
Shaman
A part time religious specialist respected only for their talents not their title they have a relationship with the supernatural through altered states of conciousness like trances to help members of society and harm enemies
Communal practice
Religious practices in which the members of a group cooperate in the performance of rituals intended to benefit all
Ancestral rituals
Rituals performed to worship or please ancestors or kin groups
Totemistic rituals
Rituals which members of a kinship group focus on their totem (natural object with which they are associated)
Priests
Respected for their title ( with no title they aren't respected) they r full time religious specialists who officiate rituals
Ecclesiastal practices
Organized religious practices in which a full time priesthood performs rituals to benefit the whole society
Intellectual function of religion
James Frazier said that it provides an explanation for unexplainable events
Psychological function of religion
Malinowski said that people get comfort and help the, cope with misfortunes and death
Societal function of religion
Durkheim religion promotes social order and solidarity
Sorcery
Using spells to cause harm by supernatural means, it's intentional and uses voodoo practices such as using personal objects (hair)
Witchcraft
Use of psychic power to cause harm to others by supernatural means
Mana
A Polynesian term that refers to an impersonal force (luck, being talented)
5 principles of Islam
One ness of god, prayers 5 times a day facing Mecca, fast for month of Ramadan sun up to sun down, share 2.5%of disposable income, pilgrimage to Mecca
Sociatal factors of Islam
Uniformity, conformity, modesty, eye for an eye (avenge yourself)
Universality of religion
Religion is found in some form in envy part of the world
Culture wars
Fight between the cosmpolitans (want change) and the traditionalists ( who don't want change) in every society
Ethnic group
A named social group based on shared ancestry, cultural tradition, and common history that distinguish them from other groups
Nationality
An ethnic group that claims a right to a discrete homeland and to political autonomy and self determination
Sharia law
Women get half the inheritance of a man, and criminal law allows limbs to available off
Globalization
Bad things: terrorism, information isn't safe, and outsourcing causes loss of jobs good things : cheap stuff, everything is available, helps developing nations
World trade organization
Organizes trade in 95%of the world
Global economy
World wide system of buying and selling goods and labor services
Multinational corporations
Owned by stockholders it produces goods on a global scale (mcdees)
Global academic community
Individuals who control, expand and disseminate academica ideas and knowledge globally they are against the global business community that only cares about money not people
Global media
Individuals involved in production of news and entertainment that r marketed to a global audience
Homeland
A geographical region which an ethnic group feels it has exclusive rights to
Civilization
Ethnic cohesion uniting many ethnic nationalities for a shared tradition usually religion
Artifical country
A country whose political boundaries and ethnic compositin established by outside political forces (colonial possession)
Indigenous minorities
Ethnic groups usually foragers, horticulturalists, or pastoralists who occupy their historical homelands they r subordinate to the governments
Global knowledge
Cultural knowledge that's widely disseminated by means of a written language
Local knowledge
Cultural knowledge passed down orally only know by members of local group
Deceleration on the rights of indigenous people
They have the right to self determination and autonomy of self government only Australia and Finland have tried to do this
The largest urban area in the world
Tokyo, migration into urban areas is commo to find jobs but then causes lack of jobs and migrate to farms
Totems
Objects that demonstrate creation usually relates kin group to an animal
Fistula
Complication caused by a small pelvis during delivery causes reproductive organs to tear so they can't control urination
Immigration in western European countries
3.5 million illegal immigrants causing lots of unemployment and the economy to collapse
Pluralistic society
Multiple ethnic groups in an area but many groups are discriminated againsts
Traditional society
One ethnic group (Egypt)
Genocide
Eliminating an entire ethnic group by killing or eliminating cultural necessities
The four ways diseases are caused
Evil eye, witchcraft, mixing hot and cold, and biomedical ideals
Medical anthropologists study these things
Beliefs and values related to wellness, treatment with traditional medicine, psychological and emotional issues, knowledge of plants, and cultural sensitivity
Media
The most effective means of globalization