Chapter 3: Its Role in Reproducing Life and Producing Variation
Terms in this set (113)
1 of 4 nitrogen bases that make up DNA and RNA, it pairs with thymine in DNA molecules and uracil in RNA molecules
(Adenosine Triphosphate) An important cellular molecule, created by the mitochondria and carrying the energy necessary for cellular functions
Organic molecules combined in a specific sequence by the ribosomes to form a protein
Molecules that form as part of the primary immune response to the presence of foreign substances; they attach to the foreign antigens
All chromosomes, except the sex chromosomes, that occur in pairs in all somatic cells
Refers to 2 different alleles that are equally dominant, both are fully expressed in a heterozygote's phenotype
The process by which homologous chromosomes partially wrap around each other and exchange genetic information during meiosis
1 of 4 nitrogen bases that make up DNA and RNA, it pairs with Guanine
A cell that has a full complement of paired chromosomes
Refers to heritable changes but without alternation in the genome
Sexual reproductive cells, ova and sperm, that have a haploid number of chromosomes and that can unite with a gamete of the opposite type to form a new organism
The complete set of genetic information- chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA- for an organism or species that represents all the inheritable traits
1 of 4 nitrogen basesthat make up DNA and RNA, it pairs with Cytosine
A group of alleles that tend to be inherited as a unit due to their closely spaced loci on a single chromosome
Refers to the condition in which a pair of alleles at a single locus on homologous chromosomes are different
Refers to each set of paired chromosomes in the genome
The characteristics of the chromosomes for an individual organism or a species, such as number, size, and type. The karyotype is typically presented as a photograph of a person's chromosomes that have been arranged in homologous pairs and put in numerical order by size
Law of Independent Assortment
Mendel's 2nd law, which asserts that the inheritance of one trait does not affect the inheritance of other traits
Law of Segregation
Mendel's 1st law, which asserts that the two alleles for any given gene (or trait) are inherited, one from each parent; during gamete production, only one of the two alleles will be present in each ovum or sperm
Refers to the inheritance, as a unit, of individual genes closely located on a chromosome; an exception to the Law of Independent Assortment
The location on a chromosome of a specific gene
The production of gametes through one DNA replication and two cell (and nuclear) divisions, creating four haploid gametic cells
(Messenger RNA) The molecules that are responsible for making a chemical copy of a gene needed fora specific protein, that is, for the transcription phase of protein synthesis
Energy-producing (ATP) organelles in eukaryotic cells, they possess their own independent DNA
The process of cellular and nuclear division that creates two identical diploid daughter cells
Building block of DNA, made up of a phosphate group, a sugar, and a single nitrogen base
Refers to one phenotypic trait that is affected by two or more genes
Those genes that determine when structural genes and other regulatory genes are turned on and off for protein synthesis
Proteins involved in the expression of control genes
The process of copying nuclear DNA prior to cell division, so that each new daughter cell receives a complete complement of DNA
(Ribonucleic Acid) A single-stranded molecule involved in protein synthesis, consisting of a phosphate, ribose sugar, and one of four nitrogen bases
The organelles attached to the surface of endoplasmic reticulum, located in the cytoplasm of a cell; they are the site of protein synthesis
The pair of chromosomes that determine an organism's biological sex
(Single Nucleotide Polymorphsisms) Single DNA base pairings that produce genetic differences between individuals
Diploid cells that form the organs, tissues, and other parts of an organism's body
Genes coded to produce particular products, such as an enzyme or hormone, rather than for regulatory proteins
Proteins that form an organism's physical attributes
What are the steps to Protein Synthesis?
1) Transcription (unzip the DNA)
2) mRNA attaches to unpaired DNA
3) DNA closes, moves out of nucleus to ribosomes in cytoplasm
4) Translation begins (mRNA binds to ribosome)
5) Translation at ribosome (reads 3 nitrogen bases at a time)
6) Create popypeptide chain
7) Stop codon when protein complete
What are examples of regulatory genes in action?
-Humans have a gene for complete body hair coverage, but they are not fully covered with hair
-Humans have a gene for digesting milk, but not all humans can digest milk into adulthood
-Chickens have a gene tooth development but do not develop teeth
True or False: Prokaryotes are complez, multicelled organisms
True or False: The many types of bacteria that we encounter in our daily lives are prokaryotic cells
True or False: Prokaryotes are the first known form of life on earch
True or False: Prokaryotic cells do not have internal compartments separated by membranes
True or False: Prokaryotes have a cell nucleus
A _____ is a sequence of _____, and the complete set of these in an individual cell is called the _____.
Gene, DNA, Genome
Which comes first, translation or transcription?
Activities of Transcription:
-Parental strand of DNA unzips, exposing two daughter strands of DNA
-Free-floating RNA nucleotides match one exposed daughter strand of DNA
-The strand of messenger RNA (mRNA) moces out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm
Activities of Translation:
-The mRNA attaches to a ribosome in the cytoplasm
-Triplets of transfer RNA (tRNA), with exposed bases and each carrying an amino acid specific to its set of three bases, recognize and bind with complementary base pairs of mRNA
-The amino acids, linked by peptide bonds, form a chain called polypeptide
-The protein forms, either as a single polypeptide or as a multiple polypeptides bound together
Out of the following, which offspring is homozygous: RR, Rr, Rr, rr
If the genetic code is transmitted from parents to offspring via two gametes, then which is true?
The offspring's genetic code contains one chromosome from each chromosome pair in a parent's genome
True or false: In mammals, the male parent's gamete determines the sex of the offspring
Mitochondria use oxygen to turn food molecules into ___, a high-energy molecule that powers cells
True or False: The genes that control the development of the key structures of the body are the same in all related organisms (e.g., flies, rats, birds, snakes, and humans)
Mitochondrial DNA is inherited from which of the following:
In a eukaryotic cell, where is the majority of DNA found?
True or False: Genes that are close together on a chromosome are much more likely to recombine with one another than genes that are farther away from one another
In a prokaryotic cell, where is the genetic material found?
The nucleoid region
What are some examples that could potentially lead to epigenetic effects?
-A mother's physical activity habits early in life can impact the life-long health of her then unborn child
-A mother is exposed to pollution that affects a developing fetus
-Offspring that come from the developing ova of a female fetus are affected by their grandmother's eating habits
-A mother living in an extremely cold environment can affect the growth and development patterns of her grandchildren
True or False: Eukaryotic cells have internal compartments separated by membranes
Are eukaryotic organisms single-celled or multicelled?
Which came first, prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
Are cell walls features of prokaryotic cells or eukaryotic cells?
True or False: Eukaryotic cells require enormous amounts of energy to survive and reproduce
Why are SNPs important?
They allow scientists to measure genetic differences between individuals
What type of cell is the product of mitosis?
What type of cell is the product of meiosis?
_____ proteins are responsible for physical charactersistics
_____ proteins control activities within and between cells and fight infections
Is most human DNA coding or noncoding?
What are the steps of meiosis?
1) Replication of parent cell
2) Parent cell divides into two daughter cells
3) Second round of division occurs
4) Formation of four daughter cells
Are gametes produced from mitosis or meiosis?
Are somatic cells formed from mitosis or meiosis?
The failure of the chromosomes to properly segregate during meiosis, creating some gametes with abnormal numbers of chromosomes
Rearrangement of chromosomes due to the insertion of genetic material from one chromosome to another
The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes, resulting from a cross-over event
Which is more simple, prokaryotic cells or eukaryotic cells?
True or False: The potato and the guinea pig have more chromosomes than humans do
Blocks of genetic material that do not recombine and are passed on for generations are called:
As you're waiting at the doctor's office, you overhear another patient discussing with the doctor how unlucky he is to be going bald at such a young age. The doctor counters this assertion and explains that:
Luck has nothing to do with it, rather an SNP can code for susceptibility to baldness, so his problem is genetic
In RNA, _____ replaces thymine as a nucleotide base
If a man and a woman who both have the AB blood phenotype have a child, the one blood type that child CANNOT have is:
What are the building blocks of DNA?
Phosphate, Sugar, Nitrogen Base
If you wanted to sequence the genome of Otzi, the 5,300 year old Iceman mummy found in the Alps in 1991, which method would you most likely use?
Human and chimpanzee DNA is about __% identical:
In mammals, the male parent's gametes determine the sex of his offspring because:
The Y chromosome is present in males only
The presence of a recessive allele:
Is usually masked in the phenotype
An individual that is homozygous at the locus that determines ABO blood type may have any of the following EXCEPT:
Type AB blood
Individuals whose blood type is A and who carry both dominant and recessive genes at this locus have a genotype of:
Human ABO blood types are:
determined by multiple alleles
appear to function in similar ways across diverse groups of organisms
DNA is important for protein synthesis because:
A) It is biological code for the production of hormones and enzymes
B) It serves as a template for protein production
C) It provides the code to produce structural proteins
D) All of the above
D) all of the above
Hox genes are responsible for:
the development and location of key body parts
Carry genetic information that influences the same trait
The expression of polygenic traits:
is determined by genes at several loci in conjunction with environmental factors
_____ DNA is heteroplasmic, meaning it can differ among different parts of a person's body
The gene responsible for lactose persistence among adults in Europe is a:
Proteins consist of:
chains of amino acids
How many gametes does meiosis result in?
For most traits...
-...are the product of multiple genes working together (they are polygenic)
-...the environment and epigenetic changes affect the way that these traits are expressed
-...can be influenced by the effects of one or more pleiotropic genes
True or False: Meiosis produces cells with 23 chromosomes
True or False: Meiosis produces gametes
Is heritability solely impacted by Mendels' Laws?
No, heritability is also impacted by environmental factors.
What is the formula for heritability?
Genetic Variation / (Genetic Variation + Environmental Variation)
Aside from the nucleus, where else can a small amount of DNA be found in the eukaryotic cell?
The human karyotype consists of ___ pairs of chromosomes
True or False: E. Coli is a prokaryotic bacterium
What are the largest organelles in a cell?
In RNA, ______ replaces thymine as a nucleotide base
Chromosome number is reduced during ______
Which statements about genes and chromosomes are true?
-Each chromosome has a sequence of nucleotide pairs
-Homologous chromosomes may have different alleles for the same gene
-Your 2 copies of a non-sex chromosome have the same set of genes
-For a specific chromosome, typically one receives one copy from each parent
-Genes are specific sequences of nucleotides at a specific locus whose sequence of nucleotides produce body structures like proteins or regulate the production of these structures
-For a specific chromosome people have a specific set of genes
In protein synthesis, _____ refers to "unzipping" the DNA, and _____ refers to the formation of polypeptide chains
During a visit to the circus, you and a friend stumble into a tent with a "freaks of nature" display. Your friend points out a photograph of a man whose left arm is protruding from his left hip rather than from his shoulder. You explain to your friend that this condition was likely caused by a mutation in the man's:
When scientists talk about a "cancer gene," what do we usually mean?
-The cancer is usually caused by either having a spontaneous new mutation of the DNA sequence of this gene or inheriting a mutant form of this gene from a parent
-There is a mutation in a gene that has a useful function
-Individuals who do not have a mutation have normal functioning of this gene
-That a "cancer gene" is one or more mutated alleles for a normal gene that everyone has
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