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Psychology Chapter 15 & 16 Flashcards
Psychology Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders & Chapter 16: Therapy Flashcards
Terms in this set (44)
A "harmful dysfunction" in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable.
The concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, the medical model assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital.
A contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.
The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition), a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
A psychological disorder that is usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially. Freud saw the neurotic disorders as ways of dealing with anxiety.
A psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions.
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsession) and/ or actions (compulsions).
Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
Major Depressive Disorder
A mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities.
A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.
False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders.
Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
An emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties.
An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique; designed to bring repressed feelings and thoughts to conscious awareness so the person can deal with these issues more effectively; uses free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences--and the therapist's interpretations of them--released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.
In psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight.
In psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.)
Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.
Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.
A behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
A type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol).
An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
A popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior).
Therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication.
A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.
The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
A chemical that provides an effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorders.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
A now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. the procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.
Regression Toward The Mean
The tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.
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