European Renaissance

Important people and works of the renaissance in Europe. Sorry about spelling :*
Leonardo Bruni
1. First to use the term "humanism"
2. Among the most important of the civic humanists
3. Served as a chancellor in Florence
4. Wrote a history of Florence, perhaps the first modern
history, and wrote a narrative using primary source
documents and the division of historical periods
Lorenzo Valla
(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism.
Pico della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
Lorenzo de'Medici
Grandson of Cosimo using the family wealth and influence made Florence the cultural center of Italy
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Baldassar Castiglione
(1478-1529) Wrote: "Book on the Courtier," a manual on winnng fame and influence and being rich and powerful; aka on how to be "Renaissance Man." Math and Science were for men only.
Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature. (wimpy david)
The ranaissance artist who led the way in establishing a new style of employing deep space, modeling , and anatomical correctness.
Fillipo Brunelleschi
(1377-1446) Architect that was interested in bronze and painting. Created massive dome on Cathedral of Florence (Il Duomo).
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503). Cut open pregnant women to see the fetuses growing inside.
Michelangelo Buonarroti
(1475-1564) Italian Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet; he sculpted the Pieta and the David, and he painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel which took him four years to paint. The ceiling shows sweeping scenes from the Old Testament of the Bible.
1483-1520 Short but productive life. Worked in Florence and Rome. Well-known for Madonnas, humanized portrayals of the Virgin Mary with the baby Jesus. Painted frescoes in Vatican Palace - espec. The School of Athens & The Triumph of Religion - reflect artist's strong interest in classical antiquity and Christian religion.
Christine de Pisan
An unusual French woman, who earned her living by writing. She was an autocrat who started with love poems, then wrote an autobiographical poem. She was hugely successful, but had to fight stereotypes of women at the time. She was a feminist who used wit and reason to argue against antifeminist ideas, and asked women to develop independent self-worth and not rely on men, who cannot really empathize with women. She saluted Joan of Arc for her dignity as a French citizen and woman. She was an exception, but her writing was the epitomy of ideas of the century.
Isabella d'Este
First lady of the Renaissance, she was an example for women to break away from traditional roles, and even founded a school for young women. She ruled Mantua, was well educated and a big patron of the arts.
Laura Cereta
A radical feminist in her time (1469-1499) who had enough education to write about her ideas. She was Italian, and like Christine de Pisan, she furthered her education after her husband died and began publishing writing. Neither women nor men supported her, so she stopped writing after her father died. She did, however, help pave the way for other educated women.
Charles VII of France
Successfully concluded the Hundred Years' War by expelling the English from France. Strengthened royal finances through taxes on the land and salt that funded royal income for centuries. Created the first permanent royal army
Louis XI of France
Enlarged the royal army and encouraged economic growth by promoting new industries such as silk weaving.
Francis I of France
Responsible for the Concordat of Bologna with Pope Leo X authorizing the king to nominate bishops, abbots and other high officials of the Catholic church, giving the French monarch administrative control of the church.
Henry VII of England
Created the Star Chamber as a political weapon that tried nobles in a secret court session with no right of appeal, juries, or witnesses.
Henry VIII of England
Declared the king the supreme head of the Church of England (Anglican Church), severing England's ties with the Catholic Church. Dissolved the monasteries and confiscated their land/ wealth.