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biomolecule made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; used to make energy (ATP)
ex) starch, glucose, fructose
biomolecule that is fat; makes up the cell membrane with phospolipids, stores energy, and protects internal organs
ex) fats, oils, waxes
biomolecule made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; made of amino acids; functions include growth, repair, and metabolic functions
ex) hemoglobin, enzymes
biomolecule that stores genetic material, carry out daily functions, and make proteins in protein synthesis
cell division in somatic cells of multicelled organisms (nonsex cells) that occurs for growth and development
result: 2 cells with the same # of chromosomes as the parent cell
cell division in gametes (sex cells); makes reproductive cells
result: 4 cells with half the # of chromosomes as the parent cell
cell membrane composed of phospolipid molecules to serve as a boundary; semi-permeable
when substances pass across the membrane without requiring cellular energy
the diffusion of water across a memebrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration
when cell enegry is required for substances to pass across the plasma membrane - ATP needed
the process of transferring stored energy from glucose to energy for the cell (ATP)
infectious agent that replicates only within the cells of living hosts, mainly bacteria, plants, and animals: composed of an RNA or DNA core, a protein coat, and, in more complex types, a surrounding envelope.
deoxyribonucleic acid; found in the nucleus of cells and contains the hereditary information for making proteins; made up of nucleotides; double helix, double stranded
ribonucleic acid; three types of RNA that are involved in making proteins; single stranded, sugar ribose, and RNA had Uracil instead of Thymine
the process by which the cell makes proteins using the DNA code - transcription and translation
the DNA code is copied to make mRNA; hydrogen bonds between the DNA seperate --> mRNA nucleotides join one side of the DNA strand to make a copy --> mRNA leaves nucleus o take the copied DNA to a ribosome
two different genes, when paired, blend together and produce a 3rd phenotype
ex)red flower and white flower produce pink flowers
both alleles are expressed
ex)a black chicken crossed with a white chicken produces a checkered chicken
found on X chromosome, Y chromosome doesnt have a gene for the trait, males only have to inherit 1 recessive gene so they are more likely to have the condition
traits controlled by more than two alleles in a population
ex)each individual has 2 genes for blood type, bur 3 alleles exist in our population. The type A allele and type B allele are codominant. Type O is recessive. This gives us 4 blood types. (A, AB, B, O)
a picture of an organism's chromosomes; shows if an individual has too many or too few chromosomes
when chromosomes fail to seperate during meiosis and gametes receive extra or missing chromosomes
a change in the DNA of a cell; only passed to offspring if it occurs in a reproductive cell or gamete - can be beneficial
ex)mistakes in replication, mistakes in transcription, external agents(chemicals,etc.)
structures that have little or no function but were probably used by ancestral organisms
a scientific theory that explains the process of evolution; states that organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass those traits on to their offspring
species name of an organism that includes the genus name followed by the specific name (should be italicized or underlined)
algae; produces much of the Earth's oxygen and green algae is said to be the ancestors of plants
have jointed appendages, an exoskeleton, and body segments
ex) insects-flies, ant, grasshopper
move by tiny tube feet, have spiny skin, and live in the ocean
ex) sea star, sea cucumber, etc.
finger-like projections that absorb nutrients that line the small intestine; the link between the digestive system and the circulatory system
part of the brain divided in two halves. controls your conscious activites, intelligence, memory, language, muscle movement, and senses
part of the brain; made up of the medulla oblongata(controls involuntary activites like breathing and heart rate), pons, and midbrain
skin - dermins and epidermis; first line of defense and helps maintain homeostasis
supports the body and protects internal organs, makes red blood cells; bones - axial and appendicular skeleton
lines organs and allows for movement of the bones; 3 types: cardiac (heart), smooth (digestive organs), and skeletal (moves bones)
breaks down food for nutrients to be absorbed and transported to cells by circulatory system; contains mouth, esophagus, stomach, large and small intestines, and the liver
carries messages from the brain throughout the body; made of neurons, central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and peripheral nervous system (carries messages from body to central nervous system)
produces hormones; consists of the pancreas, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, testes and ovaries
delivers oxygen and nutrients to cells and picks up waste from cells; consists of heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries - blood
takes in oxygen to be transported to the cells by the circulatory system then releases CO2 that the circulatory system brings back; consists of mouth/nose, trachea, bronchiole tubes, and lungs; diaphragm contracts for inhalation
produce gametes and development of offspring; male and female reproductive systems; sperm and ovules
no vessels, or vascular tissue, for transporting water and nutrients; cant grow very large
the nonliving parts of an organisms enviornment
ex)air currents, temperature, soil, etc.
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