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Epidemiology of Dental Caries
Terms in this set (77)
What is the most prevalent chronic childhood disease ?
How much more common is tooth decay than asthma?
5x more common
What is surveillance?
Monitoring/ tracking a disease to collect data
Where can you find data about caries trends in the U.S. population?
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS)
Healthy People 2020 (HP2020)
What is epidemiology?
the study of the distribution and determinant of health-related states or events including disease), and the application of this study to the control of diseases and other health problems. (WHO)
What methods can be used to study distribution?
Surveillance and descriptive studies
What methods can be used to study determinants?
Dental caries is a disease that is _______-_____________, _________________, and _____________ mediated.
diet-dependent, transmissable, biologically
List the three element that dental caries require to exist.
host, microorganism, substrate
What is the substrate for dental caries?
every component of plaque biofilm on the tooth
A host for dental caries can be based off of _________ or ___________ factors.
dissolving of enamel
What is demineralization caused by?
rebuilding of enamel
What causes remineralization?
The Caries Balance is the dynamic process of ______________ and ______________.
Demineralization occurs when _____________ factors outweigh _____________ factors.
Remineralization occurs when _____________ factors outweigh __________ factors.
What was the former approach to fixing dental caries?
Why was restoration not the best approach to caries?
restored teeth are more susceptible
What is the current approach to dental caries?
prevention ; Identify and prevent risk factors
What are 3 protective factors that are implemented to prevent caries?
fluoride, salivary flow, antimicrobials
Caries occur when there is a presence of ___________ __________.
streptococcus mutans (bacteria)
Caries is primarily transmitted _________.
vertically (from parent to child)
________ is infectious.
Enamel caries first appear as ___________ lesions.
How does enamel caries occur?
Enamel caries lesions progress is plaque is _____________.
Enamel caries are classified by ________________, Facial/ lingual, _______, and root surface.
Early childhood caries is classified by _______ and disease presentation.
Early childhood caries are associated with ad libitum (at will) ________ feeding.
Early childhood caries usually begins with _______ incisors and progress to ______________.
maxillary ( tongue protects mandibular incisors) , lower molars
What is caries assessment of a community called?
Population-based measures of caries
The unit of analysis for a population-based measure of caries is often a ______________ area but can also be an ______ group.
What are the 3 components of measuring caries experience of a group?
1. describe the extent of the disease
2. given population
3. defined point in time
What are the 2 methods for detection of population-based caries?
1. Tactile (use of explorer)
measure of disease
DMF Index stands for ______ ______ and ______ , and measure the caries experience in ____________ teeth.
decayed, missing, filled, permanent
dmf index stands for ________, ___________, and ________, and measure the caries experience of _____________ teeth.
decayed, missing, filled, primary
A DMF/ dmf score is ____________ (cannot decrease) .
__________ teeth take priority over ___________ teeth in the DMF/dmf index.
How do you determine the DMF score?
calculate each tooth separately (no tooth can be counted more than once) and then combine each calculation to get the total DMF.
What is the combined DMF used to measure?
The caries experience
When calculating the missing teeth, you do not include ____________, or _____________ teeth at youth.
3rd molars, extracted
What does DMFS stand for?
Decay, missing, filled, surfaces
For DMFS of posterior teeth, which surfaces do you count?
distal, mesial, lingual, buccal, occlusal
For DMFS of anterior teeth, which surfaces do you count?
distal, mesial, lingual, facial
A DMFS score will be from _________ to ______ or _________ to __________.
What is the equation for population DMFS or DMFT?
sum of scores/ # of individuals
A dmfs score will be from _____ to ______.
In primary teeth, dmf is used ____________ exfoliation begins.
In primary teeth, _____ is used after exfoliation begins.
Basic Screening Survey (BSS) is a standardized method for ___________ which is collected by __________ personnel.
data collection, non dental
Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is classified by 1 or more df surfaces in a child under ________ months.
Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) is classified by 1 or more df surfaces in a child under _________ months OR dmfs greater than or equal to _____ for 3-year-olds, _____ for 4-year-olds, and ___ for 5-year-olds.
36, 4, 5, 6
Root caries are caries of __________ and ________ on the root surface.
Root caries start at or below the ________ and are exposed by ____________ ( and bone loss) .
cementoenamel junction, gingival recession
Root Caries Index (RCI) describes the prevalence of ________ in a ________.
root caries, population
The formula used to calculate RCI is the number of _________ divided by the number of _________.
DF root surfaces, exposed root surfaces
Risk factors are demonstrated by __________ studies.
What is a risk indicator?
A factor believed to be associated with disease.
A _____ _______ is NOT associated with longitudinal studies.
What are 3 Risk factor/ indicator categories?
1. Beyond individual's control
2. within control
The amount of caries _________ in the US in the second half of the 20th century in mostly ________ ___________ caries.
declined, smooth surface
What was the main reason for the decrease in smooth surface caries in the second half of the 20th century in the US?
community water fluoridation
The caries experience is ____________ and the DMF ________ with age.
The contribution of D _____ with age whereas the contributions of M and F ____________ with age.
Periodontal Disease _____________ with age, causing ___________, tooth loss, and _______________.
increases, gingival recession, root caries
Why are caries increasing among the elderly?
They retain their teeth longer than in the past, xerostomia, motor skills, diet
___________ have more decayed surfaces and filled surfaces. This could potentially mean that ____________ seek more dental treatment.
_____________ have more root caries. A possible reason for this is that _______ have a higher prevalence of periodontal disease.
Caries are generally higher among which 4 ethnicities?
African Americans, Hispanic, Alaskan Native, American Indian
DMF is _______________ among all income levels.
There are more filled teeth in __________ income levels.
There are more untreated caries in __________ income levels.
There are more extractions in __________ income levels.
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