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treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-and the therapist's interpretations of them-released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistance, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
a Freud-influenced perspective that sees behavior, thinking, and emotions in terms of unconscious motives
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to promote clients' growth. (also called person-centered therapy)
empathic listening in which the listerner echoes, restates, and clarities. a feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy
a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors, includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid
a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing, anxiety-triggering stimuli. commonly used to treat phobias
VIRTUAL REALITY EXPOSURE THERAPY
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
a type of counterconditioninig that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for privileges or treats
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
a popular integreated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
therapy that threats the family as a system. views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members
drugs used to treat depression and some anxiety disorders. different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters
ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT)
a biomedical tyerapy for severly depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
REPETITIVE TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION (rTMS)
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
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