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Why does the S3 heart sound occur?
Results from increased atrial pressure leading to increased flow rates.
Causes of the S3 heart sound?
The most common cause of the S3 is congestive heart failure, less common is valvular regurgitation and left to right shunts.
When does the S4 heart sound occur?
Low frequency sound just after atrial contraction ("atrial kick") at the end of diastole and immediately before S1.
Why does the S4 heart sound occur?
Seen in patients with stiffened left ventricles, resulting from conditions such as hypertension, aortic stenosis, ischemic or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In patient with mitral regurgitation, suggestive of acute onset of regurgitation due to the rupture of the chorda tendinae that anchor the Valvular leaflets.
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