99 terms

Observing and Assessing Young Children

Why is assessment used with infants and preschool children?
Assess and promote childrens learning and development
What was the result of the child study movement?
A call for educational reform, establishment of developmental norms, and the initiation of research into child development.
Standardized tests were first
starting in the 1900's
After World War II: The demand for dependable and technically refined tests grew and...
testing became more centralized which improved the quality of tests and giant corporations grew that could assemble the resources to develop, publish, score, and report the test results.
The most significant law affecting the measurement of children was PL 94-142, the education for All Handicap Children act, later renamed...
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Legislation to address the needs of children with disabilities was
gradually expanded with ongoing legislation
What is the one reason assessment should be used in the classroom?
Planning for instruction
Assessment that connects to real world and has meaningful context is called
Authentic Assessment
Authentic Assessment
Assessment procedures that test skills and abilities as they would be applied in real-life situations. Allows teacher to observe progress.
Performance Assessment
An assessment method whereby teachers evaluate a student's skill by asking the student to create an answer or product that demonstrates his or her knowledge or skills.
When initiating assessment with young children the examiner should
be alert to shyness or fatigue in the child.
Infants who are at risk for developmental delays might be formally examined by a
According to the principles of assessment, assessment should
benefit the child and improve learning.
A comprehensive system of assessment should include
A method to report results to parents and other professionals, informal assessment strategies, and use one standardized and approved method of assessment.
Standardized Tests began
around 1900.
What are the 4 purposes of assessment as summarized by the national early childhood assessment resource group?
- To promote children learning and development
- Identify children for health and social services
- Monitor trends and evaluate programs
- Assess academic achievement to hold individual students, teachers, and schools accountable.
Summative Assessment
Used at the end of a cycle of instructional experiences to confirm mastery of information or skills.
Formative Assessment
Used to monitor a child's progress during a series of learning activities.
Why do we assess?
To see if children are progressing normally. Children are constantly changing.
Assessments are ongoing to...
determine child's level and plan curriculum.
Why do we have standardized tests?
-To measure individual characteristics
- Determine developmental and learning
- Plan Instruction
- Study differences between individuals and groups
Consistency - The extent to which a test is consistent in measuring over time what it is designed to measure.
Accuracy - The degree to which a test serves the purpose for which it is to be used.
Play based assessments allow children
To demonstrate skills and abilities not apparent in other assessments.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
IDEA guarantees all children with disabilities
the right to an appropriate education in free public schools and placement in a least restrictive learning environment.
Law PL 94-142
Legislation for young children law...
- The education for all handicap children act, passed in 1975. Renamed IDEA.
Law PL 99-457
Federal Preschool program and the early Intervention program, passed in 1986
Law PL 101-576
ADA Law, Americans with disabilities act, passed in 1990. All early childhood programs must be prepared to serve children with special needs.
The process of gathering information about children from several forms of evidence, then organizing and interpreting that information.
IDEA requires that a team is used to identify and place students with disabilities, The team..
screens and tests the individual child and develops an IEP (Individual Educational Plan)
No Child Left Behind
Highly qualified teachers must be hired
Standardized achievement tests should
not be used before age 8.
In primary grades, Achievement tests should be given...
- To determine a child's progress
- Plan appropriate instruction based on what the child has accomplished.
Students in primary grades
can evaluate their progress and have a voice in how they can master learning objectives.
Especially with infants and toddlers, Who is the primary source of information?
the parents or caregivers
For ELL's regardless of what an assessment is intended to measure, the assessment will
be an assessment of their English proficiency.
Informal assessment strategies are to
determine development and learning.
For a child who is "gifted or talented" demonstrates a learning ability or potential, higher than the normal range...
Informal observations are usually followed by standardized tests.
Comprehensive assessment system strategies are used to
assess the child and report the child's progress. They contain examples of the child's growth and achievement and traditional reports provide snapshot of progress.
Informal assessment strategies
Performance and Portfolio assessments
Pre-assessments are conducted at the beginning of the year to
- learn about individual differences
-determine a child's current developmental level
- plan appropriate curriculum experiences
Standardized tests do not reflect
the student's progress accurately.
NCLB the purpose of standards has been
- To provide clarity for curriculum content
- To raise expectations for student learning
- Ensure accountability
Early learning standards
- Encourage educators to understand the learning potential in young children
- Support in developing quality early childhood programs
- Provide guidelines for communication of children's accomplishments
- Provide for accountability for the children's development and achievement
To avoid narrowing the curriculum, and using inappropriate testing methods, teachers must integrate
- standards into existing curriculum
- assessments that are proven to be of high quality for young children
treating a disabilities child with no special treatment. LER
Why are the test items on a experimental form of a standardized text analyzed?
- To see if they are too easy or too hard
- To see if they discriminate between students at different grade levels
- To see if there are questions that should be eliminated or added
A test can have which type of reliability?
Alternate-form reliability
What should educators who are looking for a quality test consider?
- The validity of the test
- The test's instruction
- The length of the test
The selection of the norming population of a test should include all the following
- The geographical locations
- The grade levels of the students in the norming group
- The ages of the students in the norming group
Standardized tests
provide scores that can be compared.
Why can the use of standardized tests be the best assessment strategy?
- Validity and Reliability
- Quantifiable Scores
- Norm referencing
Concerns about high stake tests
They can be used inappropriately.
Stanines show how individuals range among a group of test takers on a scale of
Similarity's between norm and criterion referenced tests
- Judged by validity and reliability
- Useful in educational measurements
- Require specifications of the achievement domain to be measured
Intelligence tests measure a students
The apgar scale
A standardized assessment that is administered 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth to assess the health of the new born.
Diagnostic tests are
not administered before screening tests
Language tests can
measure vocabulary development and diagnose language needs.
Criterion referenced tests and norm referenced tests both use
the same type of test items
The steps in standardized test design...
- Specify the purpose.. A clearly defined purpose is the framework for the construction of the test.
- determine the format
- formulate objectives
- test construction
- assemble the final form
- establish norms
- determine v and r
- develop a test manual
Advantages of standardized tests
- Uniformity in test administration
- quantifiable scores
- norm referencing
- Validity and reliability
Disadvantages of standardized tests
- not the best method of evaluation for young children
- a variety of strategies should be used in assessing children
Achievment tests
measure the extent to which a person has acquired certain info or has mastered identified skills.
Aptitude tests
measure the potential to learn or develop proficiency in some areas. predict future learning.
Intelligence Tests
ability tests that measure learning potential
Screening tests
detect if a child might have a developmental problem that needs further investigation. Screens various developmental domains.
National tests
- compare students achievement across states to address higher standards for education
- identify poor instructional areas and pinpoint weakness in a program
State developed tests are used by school districts to
- determine each students progress
- provide information for future instruction
- describe student progress between and within schools
Preschool tests can include
- Pictures
- Concrete tasks
- Oral responses
Degree of Mastery
Performance assessments include
- Interviews
- contracts
- directed assignments
Work samples include
- paintings
- emergent writings
- clay models
The first step in getting started using portfolios is
selecting the purpose for the portfolio
The organization of a portfolio should not include
parental feedback
A portfolio does not include
lesson plans
There is a direct link between the standard of mastery and Bloom's taxonomy
Performance assessments can be structured or unstructured.
Rubrics provide framework to assess process of learning in performance assessment.
The child can use the portfolio for self assessment.
Portfolios make it possible to combine performance assessments with other types of assessments.
The first standardized tests
started as informal assessments.
Content validity
established for an achievement test.
Criterion related validity
established for an aptitude test.
Construct validity
describes the extent to which a test of an abstract psychological trait measures the trait.
Variables that affect the standard error of measurement
- population sample size
- test length
- range of test scores
Achievement tests are
- given to measure and analyze individual and group performance
- analyzed for trends in achievement
- describe program effectiveness
Informal teacher conducted assessments can be used for...
placement, diagnostic evaluation, and instructional planning and formative and summative evaluation
For preschoolers, Teacher designed evaluation strategies are
a first step in evaluation.
Disadvantages of using classroom assessments
there may be confusion over what constitutes mastery and what kind of assessment is appropriate to determine mastery.
Primary grade pencil and paper tests
adapted to the child's limited reading and writing skills
Placement Tests
- determines the instructional group for the student and determines what the student already knows and is ready to learn.
Diagnostic Tests
determines student weaknesses that need to be corrected.
Table of specifications
A type of spreadsheet to help teachers design and review tests. Main purpose is to help teachers clarify and communicate the elements (objectives) that will be emphasized on a test.
Table of specifications is a grid that includes
- delineation of course content areas
- levels of learning (Blooms Taxonomy)
- grade weights alloted to each
Advantages of teacher designed assessments
- designed for a particular class ability
- can be improved whenever neede
Teacher designed assessments
Test items and learning activities are linked to the same learning objectives so that the teachers are teaching and testing to the same levels of knowledge on blooms taxonomy.
Tests for primary grade children
- Match the child's reading level
- Directions are clear
-Ensure that response items for multiple choice type assessments have one correct answer
- same length and are brief
- list of items breif for matching exercise
- homogeneous list of matching
- length for blanks is the same for completion test items
- only one blank for each completion items