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WH Ch. 18 Test
Terms in this set (56)
old order where everyone in France was divided into three classes or Estates
(1%) top social class made up of the clergy
(2%) second highest social class made up of nobles
(97%) lowest social class of the ancient regime with the Bourgeoisie at the top, mostly rural peasants in
the middle and urban poor or unemployed at the bottom. The 3rd Estate resented the privileges and
possessions of the 1st and 2nd Estates.
middle class which included: bankers, merchants, manufacturers, doctors, lawyers, journalists, and professors
financial expert and advisor to Louis XVI; he wanted to tax the 1st and 2nd estates and urged the king to reduce his extravagant spending and reduce tariffs on internal trade; these reforms failed and the nobles & clergy had him fired.
when a government spends more than it takes in
the legislative body consisting of representatives of the three estates
Tennis Court Oath-
June 1789, delegates to the Estates-General from the 3rd estate declared themselves to be the national Assembly. When they were locked out of the meeting and because they feared the king would dismiss them or worse, they moved to a nearby indoor tennis court and swore an oath to "never separate and to meet wherever the circumstances might require until we have established a sound and just constitution."
a grim, medieval, Paris prison housing political and other prisoners; stormed by mob on July 14, 1789
The Great Fear-
Peasant revolt from July 20-August 5, 1789; factions in Paris competed to gain power; people were very angry
Marquis de Lafayette-
the aristocratic "hero of two worlds" who fought with George Washington. Lafayette headed the National Guard, a largely middle-class militia organized in response to the arrival of Royal troops in Paris
the members of the 3rd estate at the Estates General in Versailles declared themselves to be the governing body; they were joined by some clergy and nobles; they forced the 1st and 2nd estates to give up their privileges and titles; in August 1789 they issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen; they were replaced by the Legislative Assembly in October 1791.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen-
document modeled on the US Declaration of Independence. It insisted that government existed to protect the natural rights of citizens and that all men are born and remain free and they are equal in rights such as liberty, property, security, and resistance to
members of a radical political club made up mostly of middle class lawyers and intellectuals; they used pamphlets and newspapers to advance the republic; they supported Robespierre.
people who flee a country; in France the nobles, clergy and others were émigrés from revolutionary forces
Declaration of Pillnitz-
document issued by the King of Prussia and the Emperor of Austria (Marie Antoinette's brother) that threatened to intervene in France to protect the monarchy. It caused the revolutionaries to prepare for war.
means without breeches because they wore long pants not fancy knee breeches; working class men and women who demanded a republic
Olympe de Gouges-
1791, female author who demanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen; she was imprisoned and executed.
Queen of France; wife of Louis XVI; daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria; Sister of Joseph II of Austria; lived in luxury while her subjects starved; when she was told the people had no bread to eat she said, "Let them eat cake." She was beheaded in October 1793.
a small chateau on the Palace of Versailles grounds where Marie Antoinette lived her own life of amusement.
a government ruled by representatives instead of a monarch
How were the sans-culottes different from the Jacobins?
The Sans-Culottes were typically working class men and women while the Jacobins were largely lawyers and intellectuals.
How did European monarchs and nobles feel about the French Revolution?
The feared their subjects would catch this "plague" or "Freedom Fever" and revolt against them too; they increased border patrols and threatened to intervene to protect the French monarchy.
Know the story of the royal family's attempted escape to Austria
June 1791, Queen Marie Antoinette and others urged the king to escape their humiliating situation, so
disguised as a servant, a governess and children, they fled north in a coach. Someone held up a dollar with the King's picture on it and they were returned to Paris. All along the route back to Paris, the French people hurled insults and items at the royal family's coach. The failed escape proved to some that Louis XVI was a traitor to the revolution.
1792, citizens attacked prisons that held nobles and priests killing 1200 many of whom were ordinary criminals
the right to vote or a vote
a fast falling diagonal blade used to execute by beheading; became the symbol of horror
Committee of Public Safety-
It had almost absolute power; it issued a levee en masse (a mass levy or tax) and the 12 members of the Committee were in charge of trials and executions; Robespierre was its leader for a while, it lasted from Sept. 1793- July 1794 when Robespierre was arrested and executed
Levee en Masse-
mass levy or tax issued by the Committee of Public Safety that required all citizens to contribute money to pay for the war effort.
a shrewd lawyer and politician; rose to the leadership of the Committee of Public Safety; supported by the Jacobins, attempted to destroy the Catholic Church; he embraced Rousseau's idea of the general will of the people as source of legitimate law; he promoted religious toleration and wanted to abolish slavery; he was cold, humorless, and used terror to achieve a republic of virtue; he said, "Liberty cannot be secured unless criminals lose their heads."
Reign of Terror-
phase 3 of the French Revolution; lasted from September 1793 to July 1794. Committee for Public Safety arrested, found about 17,000 guilty and beheaded "suspected people"; about 15% were nobility, many were artisans and peasants who were turned in by citizens who didn't like them
a strong feeling of pride and devotion to one's country
French port city on the Mediterranean Sea; troops marched to a rousing song "La Marseilles" that would become the national anthem
Why was Maximilien Robespierre nicknamed "the Incorruptible"?
Robespierre was selflessly dedicated to the republic that nothing would divert him.
or popular vote by ballot; Napoleon used these to ensure his popularity
code of laws; embodied Enlightenment ideas such as the equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and the abolition of feudalism; it undid some of the reforms: women lost most of their newly gained rights and could not exercise the rights of citizenship; male heads of households had complete authority over their wives and children.
incorporate into; Napoleon annexed: the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany
Napoleon's strategy for waging economic war to bring England to its knees by closing European ports to British goods.
hit and run raids performed by Spanish patriots against the French to keep the French army from going elsewhere to fight
burning crops and villages; done by the Russians as they moved east to avoid battles with the French; it left napoleon's army starving and cold
Battle of Leipzig-
Russia, Austria, Britain, and Prussia allied against the French in 1813 and defeated Napoleon causing him to abdicate in the next year.
Battle of Waterloo-
on June 18, 1815 the opposing armies met near Waterloo, Belgium; British forces under the Duke of Wellington and a Prussian army commanded by General Blucher crushed the French in a day long battle; once again, Napoleon was forced to abdicate and go into exile on the lonely isle of St. Helena in the South Atlantic never to return again.
stepped down from power; Napoleon did in 1814
Congress of Vienna-
the heads of state met for 10 months from September 1814 to June 1815 to restore stability and order to Europe after years of war.
the policy promoted by the Congress of Vienna to restore the hereditary monarchies in France and other European nations that Napoleon or revolution had unseated.
Concert of Europe-
the system in which European powers (Austria, Russia, Prussia, & Great Britain) met periodically to discuss the problems affecting the peace of Europe.
What disastrous military move led to Napoleon's downfall?
What country avoided invasion and influence of Napoleon's empire?
What was Napoleon's slogan for France as he gained more power?
"Order, security, and efficiency."
Napoleon and the Egyptian campaign
Napoleon was disastrously defeated by the British when he led a campaign in Egypt in 1798 hoping to disrupt British trade. He hid the defeats with a network of spies and by censoring the press.
What situation triggered the War of 1812?
The Continental System
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