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cellular respiration

process that transfers the energy in glucose to energy in the bonds of ATP


requires oxygen


in eukaryotic cells, house most of the metabolic equipment for aerobic respiration

organic compounds +oxygen -->

carbon dioxide + Water +energy

glucose (C6H12O6)

fuel that cells most often use

glucose becomes oxidized and..

O2 becomes reduced

electrons are passed from glucose to..

electron carrier molecule to an ETC then finally to oxygen

3 stages of respiration

1)glycolysis (in cytoplasm)
2) citric acid cycle (in mitochondria)
3) ETC and ATP synthase (mitochondria)


glucose (6 carbons) split into 2 molecules of pyruvate (3 carbon molecules)

hydrogen atoms are transferred from glucose to...

two NAD+, reducing them to NADH

glycolysis produces..

2 net ATP per glucose

Citric acid cycle

pyruvate enters mitochondrion, where it loses one CO2 and is converted to the acetyl group (2-carbon)

acetyl joins 4 carbon -->

to make 6 carbon molecule called citrate

in one reaction of cycle

electrons on placed on FAD (electron acceptor), reducing it to FADH2

NADH and FADH2 carry electrons to...



chain of electron acceptors and donors

final step in ETC..

electrons and protons combine with oxygen to form water

proton gradient from ETC powers...

ATP synthase, which is the enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of ADP and an inorganic phosphate to make ATP

Measuring rate of respiration

1) heat production (some energy given off during respiration is liberated as heat)
2) liberation of Carbon dioxide
3) oxygen consumption

oxygen consumption used in lab

use respirometer


germinating barley seeds
2 respirometers
potassium hydroxide (KOH)

the one with more barley moves faster because..

it has more material

oxygen is being taken up by the barley to perform respiration..

oxygen sucks the water drop down

CO2 is absorbed by..


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