process that transfers the energy in glucose to energy in the bonds of ATP
in eukaryotic cells, house most of the metabolic equipment for aerobic respiration
organic compounds +oxygen -->
carbon dioxide + Water +energy
fuel that cells most often use
glucose becomes oxidized and..
O2 becomes reduced
electrons are passed from glucose to..
electron carrier molecule to an ETC then finally to oxygen
3 stages of respiration
1)glycolysis (in cytoplasm)
2) citric acid cycle (in mitochondria)
3) ETC and ATP synthase (mitochondria)
glucose (6 carbons) split into 2 molecules of pyruvate (3 carbon molecules)
hydrogen atoms are transferred from glucose to...
two NAD+, reducing them to NADH
2 net ATP per glucose
Citric acid cycle
pyruvate enters mitochondrion, where it loses one CO2 and is converted to the acetyl group (2-carbon)
acetyl joins 4 carbon -->
to make 6 carbon molecule called citrate
in one reaction of cycle
electrons on placed on FAD (electron acceptor), reducing it to FADH2
NADH and FADH2 carry electrons to...
chain of electron acceptors and donors
final step in ETC..
electrons and protons combine with oxygen to form water
proton gradient from ETC powers...
ATP synthase, which is the enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of ADP and an inorganic phosphate to make ATP
Measuring rate of respiration
1) heat production (some energy given off during respiration is liberated as heat)
2) liberation of Carbon dioxide
3) oxygen consumption
oxygen consumption used in lab
germinating barley seeds
potassium hydroxide (KOH)
the one with more barley moves faster because..
it has more material
oxygen is being taken up by the barley to perform respiration..
oxygen sucks the water drop down
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