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two essential elements of all good definitions of public relations are communication and ___


an event staged specifically to attract public attention

P.T. Barnum

"A sucker is born every minute" was the public relations philosophy of ___, a legendary PR practitioner

Westinghouse Electric

the first corporate public relations department was est. in 1889 by ___

Ivy Lee

around 1913, public relations pioneer ___ issued his Declaration of Principles, which moved the profession's focus from primairly dispensing publicity to providing info


President Franklin D. Roosevelt made impressive use of ___ as a public relations tool to sell his New Deal directly to the people

Edward Bernays

around the 1920s, public relations pioneer ___ began stressing two-way communication: PR practitioners talking to people and, in return, listening to them when they talk back

satellite-delivered media tour

the PR practice of offering clients' spokespeople for interview by a worldwide audience via videoconferencing

viral marketing

the PR strategy that relies on targeting specific internet users with a given communication and relying on them to spread the word


There are many publics with whom PR professionals interact, including an organization's ___, its family. Good public relations begins at home with company newsletters, social events, and internal and eternal recognition of superior performance.


There are many publics with whom PR professionals interact, including an organization's ___; they own the organization (if it's a corporation), and their goodwill is necessary for the business to operate. Annual reports and meetings provide a sense of belonging as well as info.


There are many publics with whom PR professionals interact, including an organization's ___. Courtesy, as well as good business sense, requires that an org.'s neighbors be treated with friendship and support. INfo meetings, company-sponsored safety and food drives, and open houses strengthen ties between org.'s and their neighbors.


There are many publics with whom PR professionals interact, including the ___, without the trust and goodwill of whom very little communication with an org.'s various publics can occur. Press packets, briefings, and facilitating access to org. newsmakers build that trust and goodwill.


___ is when PR professionals directly interact with elected officials or gov. regulators and agents


the typical person in the U.S. sees ___ advertising messages a day and more than 2 million by the time they are 25 yr.'s old

F. Wayland Ayer

the first full-service ad agency was begun in 1869 by ___


when most brands in a given product category are essentially the same, they are called ___ products


___ advertising replaced single sponsorship of tv programs


Today, 15 sec. and even 10 sec. spots are common. This means that more and more spots are crammed into a commercial break, producing ___


placement of advertising in media is compensated through a ___, typically 15% of the cost of the time or space


creating advertising to appeal to audiences of varying personal and social characteristics-such as race, gender, and economic level-is called ___ segmentation


creating advertising to appeal to consumer groups of varying lifestyles, attitudes, values, and behavior patters is called ___ segmentation


one of the difficult issues in the regulation of advertising is finding the line between false or deceptive advertising and ___, that little lie that makes advertising more entertaining than it might otherwise be


among the criticisms of advertisting is its ___, the fact that ads are everywhere-in schools, on sidewalks, even in the sky


the first amendment is based on the ___ philosophy that people can't govern themselvesin a democracty unless they have access to the info they need for that governance

self righting

___ principle is represented by the paired ideas that the free flow or trade of ideas ensures that public discourse will allow the truth to emerge and that truth will emerge from this public discourse because people are inherently rational and good


When discussing the first amendment, supreme court justice Hugo Black said, "No law means no law." He was expressing the ___ position on the freedom of press and speech.

Gitlow v. New York

The Supreme Court, in its decision in ___, stated that the First Amendment was "among the fundamental personal rights and 'liberties' protected by the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment from impairment by the states." Given that, "Congress shall make no law" is now interpreted as "gov. agencies shall make no law."

Valentine v. Chrestensen

Advertising, or commerical speech, enjoys first amendment protection, as established by the Supreme Court in its 1942 ___ decision.

clear and present danger

because freedom of the press can be limited if the likely result is damaging, there is no absolute freedom of expression in the case of ___

balancing of intrests

the philosophy of ___ states that, in individual first amendment cases, several factors should be weighed in determining how much freedom the press is granted


the Supreme Court decision declaring that the FCC's traffic cop role did indeed allow it to regulate the content of that traffic is the ___ Decision


a culture's fundamental values

applied ethics

media practitioners who put their ethical values into action are using ___


the guarantee to a fair trial is secured in the __ Amendment to the Constitution

Chandler v. Flordia

In 1981, in ___, the Supreme Court determined that tv cameras in the courtroom were not inherently damaging to fairness, and different states have since adopted different standards on the issue


the false and malicious publication of material that damages a person's reputation (typically applied to print media)


oral or spoken defamation of a person's character (typically applied to broadcasting)


the basis for the test of ___ is the idea that the press can't be deterred from covering legislative, court, or other public activites for fear that the comments of a speaker or witness will open it to claims of libel or slander

actual malice

when a media outlet distributes content with knowledge of its falsity or a reckless disregard for the truth, it has acted with ___

prior restraint

the power of the gov. to prevent the publication or broadcast of expression

Roth v. United States

In 1957, in ___, the Supreme Court determined that sex and obscenity weren't synonymous, a significant advance for freedom of expression. It did, however, legally affirm for the first time that obscentiy was unprotected expression.

Miller v. State of California

the legal definition of obscenity was established in the Supreme Court decision of ___


according to the FCC, language or material that depicts sexual or excretory activites in a way that is offensive to contemporary community standards is ___

safe harbor

concerned that not all broadcast content is suitable for all audiences, the FCC developed the concept of ___, times of the broadcast day (typically 10pm to 6am) when children are not likely to be in the listening or viewing audience

Fairness Doctrine

among the regulatory requirements that disappeared during the broadcast deregulation movement of the Reagan administration is the ___, which required broadcasters to cover issues of public importance and to be fair in that coverage


among the regulatory requirements that disappeared during the broadcast deregulation movement of the Reagan administration is the ___, which required broadcasters to determine actively and affirmatively the nature of their audiences' intrest, convenience, and necessity

Mark Fowler

the FCC chairman most closely associated with the deregulation of broadcasting is ___, an appointee of the Reagan administration


identifying and granting ownership of a given piece of expression, ___ is designed to protect the creator's financial intrest in that expression

public domain

once the copyright on a piece of expression expires and isn't renewed, the material passes into ___, meaning it can be used without permission


___ theory explains how media should ideally operate in a given system of social values

social responsibility theory

___ asserts that media must remain free of gov. control, but in exchange must serve the public. Its core assumptions are a cross between the libertarian principles of freedom and the practical admissons of the need for some form of control over the media.


rules of behavior or moral principles that guide our actions in given situations

moral agent

in applying ethics, the person making the decisions is called the ___

object of the act

among the individual or group intrests that often conflict in ethical dilemmas are those of the ___, a particular person or group that is likely to be affected by media practitioners' actions


the issue of ___, an important tool of journalism, involves the ability of media professionals to keep secret the names of people who provide them with info


one conflict of intrest that bedevils media professionals is ___, in which combat reporters allow military control over their output in exchange for close access to the troops

standards and practices departments

In addition to industry professional codes, many media organizations have formulated their own institutional policies for conduct. In the case of the broadcast networks, these are enforced by ___


many media organizations utilize ___, practitioners internal to the company who serve as "judges" in disputes between the public and the organization

Red Lion Decision

the Supreme Court ___ established the principle that "it is the right of the viewers and listeners, not the right of the broadcasters, which is paramount," effectively granting the upper hand to the audience when its intrests conflict with those of broadcasters

fair use

the copyright exception of ___ is when the small portions of the original work are used for noncommercial or educational purposes

licensing companies

royalty payments in the music industry are collected from users and paid to musicians by ___ like ASCAP and BMI


social responsibility theory was developed after WWII to replace ___, which was seen as too idealistic a standard for the operation of the U.S. media system

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