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William Harrison

9th President (Whig)from Ohio - General/Indian fighter, most resembled Jackson, supported rechartering of U.S. bank, longest Inaugural Address- 2 hours, 1st to study medicine, 1st to die in office

John Tyler

10th President (Whig) from Virginia- no constitutional guideline for succession, took Harrison's place after death, served term w/out VP, Sherwood Forest plantation, 15 children, Webster-Ashburton treaty, whigs kicked him out of party, Annexation of Texas(rejected by Senate), reached joint resolution of Congress,died in Civil War, vetoed new national bank bill

Know-Nothing Party

anti-Catholic/anti-immigrant, Kansas-Nebraska Act, secret society(Star Spangled Banner) - Millard Fillmore Pres., Andrew J. Donelson VP, the new immigrants in the U.S. began to pose a threat to the "natives" because of their unknown languages and cultures. Some feared that the foreigners would outnumber them and eventually overrun the country. This hostility rekindled the spirit of European religious wars, resulting in clashes between the Protestants and Catholics. Some nativities formed this party in New York called the "Order of the Star Spangled Banner". The members refused to indentify themselves and would say they know nothing. They were an anti-Catholic group, until it subsided and slavery became the focal issue. Immigrants were helping to form the U.S. into one of the most ethnically and racially diverse societies in the history of the world.

Liberty Party

fought for Constitutional rights/abolitionism/anti-slavery-James G. Birney President, a former political party in the United States

Free Soil Party

"free soil, free speech, free labor, free men," small farmers, debtors, village merchants, houshold mill workers(supporters), condemned slavery ... Martin Van Buren President, formed from the remnants of the Liberty Party in 1848; adopting a slogan of "free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men," it opposed the spread of slavery into territories and supported homesteads, cheap postage, and internal improvements. It ran Martin Van Buren (1848) and John Hale (1852) for president and was absorbed into the Republican Party by 1856.

Webster-Ashburton Treaty 1842

Maine 7,000/12,000 acres to America (Northern Vermont/NY lines) joint res. with Britain

Sam Houston

President of Texas, Commander of the Texas army at the battle of San Jacinto; later elected president of the Republic of Texas

James K. Polk

11th President (Democrat)- Gov. Tennessee, fullfill Jacksonian Doctrine, devious, not likeable, most accessable Pres.,1st Pres. deep in budget, send budget to Pres, not Senate,Manifest Destiny, Congress Est. Independent Treasury, 54-40 or fight, gained Oregon Territory, fought Mexico to settle Texas border, acquire SW Oregon Territory,gained West of Miss. to Pacific Ocean "Sea to Shining Sea," 1st darkhorse candidate

Buchanan-Packenham Treaty

(1846)- settles Oregon Territory, determined the border of Oregon to be the 49th parallel to the Pacific, with British to the north, Americans south of the parallel, except for Vancouver Island, which was given to the British.

Lecompton Constitution

make Kansas slave state, supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.

Kansas-Nebraska Act

2 new territories; stopped Missouri Compromise, This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.

Treaty of Guadalupe- Hidalgo

(1848) - ends Mexican American War, Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million

John Charles Fremont

helps CA win independence from Mexico, a second Lieutenant in the US Topographical Corps, he mapped the Oregon Trial, and reported on other expeditions through the West- "The Pathfinder"- his excited reports gained wide circulation and helped arouse the interests of easterners

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty 1850

got Britain to agree if canal was built in Nicaragua (Central America) we would help build it together, Signed by Great Britain and the United States, it provided that the two nations would jointly protect the neutrality of Central America and that neither power would seek to fortify or exclusively control any future isthmian waterway. Later revoked by the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901, which gave the United States control of the Panama Canal. (428)

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Uncle Tom's Cabin-author

Zachary Taylor

went to Rio Grande(Buena Vista), General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.

Gadsden Purchase 1853

James Gadsden - AZ/Mex. South of Gila River, U.S. acquisition of land south of the Gila River from Mexico for $10 million; the land was needed for a possible transcontinental railroad line through the southern United States. However, the route was never used.

John Brown

stood over dying men;killed pro slavery ppl @ Pottawatomic (Pottawatomic Massacre), (FP) , Well-known abolitionist. used violence to stop slavery immediately, involved in the Pottawatomie Massacre, he ws tried, convicted of treason and hung... he became a martyr.

Ostend Manifesto

a document drawn up in 1854 that instructed the buying of Cuba from Spain, then suggested the taking of Cuba by force It caused outrage among Northerners who felt it was a Southern attempt to extend slavery as states in Cuba would be southern states.

James K. Polk

1845-1849, Democrat, first dark horse, Manifest Destiny, issue - Texas and slavery, talked about "four forty or fight", Liberty Party - James G. Birney (abolition of slavery) Buren and Clay agree for not annexing Texas

Millard Fillmore

Successor of President Zachary Taylor after his death on July 9th 1850. He helped pass the Compromise of 1850 by gaining the support of Northern Whigs for the compromise.

Charles Sumner

Abolitionist senator whose verbal attack on the South provoked a physical assault that severely injured him

Andrew Butler

aged senator os SC; sumner attacked him for his slavery beliefs and made fun of his impared speech

Commodore Perry

The Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.

Preston Brooks

Was a Congressman from South Carolina, notorious for brutally assaulting senator Charles Sumner on the floor of the United States Senate.

Buena Vista

in 1847 United States forces under Zachary Taylor defeated Mexican forces under Santa Anna in the Mexican War

Winfield Scott

was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. Known as "Old Fuss and Feathers" and the "Grand Old Man of the Army", he served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history and most historians rate him the ablest American commander of his time. Over the course of his fifty-year career, he commanded forces in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Black Hawk War, the Second Seminole War, and, briefly, the American Civil War, conceiving the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan that would be used to defeat the Confederacy.

Stephen Kearney

This Colonel, under the direction of Polk, led a small army that captured Santa Fe with no opposition. He then proceeded to California where he joined a conflict already in progress that was being staged jointly by American settlers

Topeka Constitution

First attempt to establish a constitution for Kansas Territory. Angered pro-slavery people who claimed it was illegal. Started another dispute and led to "Bleeding Kansas."

Vera Cruz

Mexican port that Wilson commanded the navy to capture before congress could respond to his asking them permission to use force against mexico. Huerta and Carranza both opposed this action.

Nicholas Trist

Sent as a special envoy by President Polk to Mexico City in 1847 to negotiate an end to the Mexican War.


15th president; bleeding kansas, John Brown's Raid, Dred Scott Case, South Seceded from Union

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

7 debates. Lincoln won pop vote- returned Douglas to Senate

Constitutional Union Party

also known as the "do-nothings" or "Old Gentlemen's" party; 1860 election; it was a middle of the road group that feared for the Union- consisted mostly of Whigs and Know-Nothings, met in Baltimore and nominated John Bell from Tennessee as candidate for presidency-the slogan for this candidate was "The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of the laws."

John Sanford

From New York; got Dred Scott as property after his brother-in-law Dr. Emerson died. He was sued by Dred Scott for freedom (since their from two different states)

Freeport Doctrine

Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.

John C. Breckinridge

The South's pro-slavery Democratic candidate in the election of 1860. Completed the split of the Democratic Party by being nominated.

John Crittendon

Attempted to recreate the Missouri Compromise as a Constitutional amendment in 1860, sadly he is unable to broker a compromise between north and south on the eve of war

Jefferson Davis

an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865

Ft. Sumter

place in South Caroline where the first shots were fired in the Civil War; event that started the Civil War)

Alexander Stephens

He was the vice-president of the Confederacy until 1865 when it was defeated and destroyed by the Union. Like the other leaders of the Confederacy, he was under indictment for treason.

Stephen A. Douglas

Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebreaska Act and the Freeport Doctrine

John Bell

Tennessee politician and Plantation owner, nominated for president in 1860 by the United States Constitutional Union Party (Whig's) but lost to Lincoln and the Republicans.

Dred Scott

A black slave, had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The ruling on the case was that He was a black slave and not a citizen, so he had no rights.

George McClellan

He was a Union general that was in charge during the beginning of the war. He defeated Lee, at Antietam, securing a much needed Union victory.

Thaddeus Stevens

Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican


the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation


In Virginia where Lee daringly divided his numerically inferior army and sent Stonewall Jackson to attack the Union flank. This was successful strategy as it was one of the Confederates most successful victories of the war. However, during the battle Jackson was shot and killed by friendly fire which depleted the moral of the confederate force.

Bull Run

1st real battle, Confederate victory, Washingtonian spectators gather to watch battle, Gen. Jackson stands as Stonewall and turns tide of battle in favor of Confederates, realization that war is not going to be quick and easy for either side


a town in western Mississippi on bluffs above the Mississippi River west of Jackson, Grant's best fought campaign, this siege ended in the seizure of the Mississippi River by the Union


The most violent battle of the American Civil War and is frequently cited as the war's turning point, fought from July 1 - July 3, 1863.

Ten percent plan

Lincoln- when 10% of the states population swore an oath of loyalty to the U.S. the state could form a new government, declare end of slavery and send representatives to Congress

Clement Vallandigham

An anti-war Democrat who criticized Lincoln as a dictator, called him "King Abraham". He was arrested and exiled to the South., Prominent Copperhead who was an ex-congressman from Ohio, demanded an end to the war, and was banished to the Confederacy

Sherman's March to the Sea

the name commonly given to the Savannah Campaign conducted in late 1864 by Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army during the American Civil War. The campaign began with Sherman's troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta, Georgia, on November 15 and ended with the capture of the port of Savannah on December 22.

Morrill Land grant act

passed by Congress in 1862, this law distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments in order to fund state agricultural colleges.

William Seward

Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.

US Grant

leading Union general in the American Civil War.Grant first reached national prominence by taking Forts Henry and Donelson in 1862 in the first Union victories of the war. The following year, his brilliant campaign ending in the surrender of Vicksburg secured Union control of the Mississippi and—with the simultaneous Union victory at Gettysburg—turned the tide of the war in the North's

Edwin Stanton

Secretary of War appointed by Lincoln. President Andrew Johnson dismissed him in spite of the Tenure of Office Act, and as a result, Congress wanted Johnson's impeachment.

Benjamin Wade

Along with Zachariah Chandler acted as vanguards in defending the Charters of Freedom, The U.S. Constitution and the Declaration of Independence from corruption by the slavery power, without compromising.

Wade-Davis bill

1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.


a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War

Robert E. Lee

A General for the confederates, fought many battles. One of his main plans towards the end of the civil war was to wait for a new president to come into office to make peace with. Fought Peninsular Campaign, 2nd battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville (with Jackson), and Gettysburg.

Pacific Railroad act

"AN ACT to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes,"

Homestead Act

Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.

Reconstruction acts

The law that put southern states under US military control and required them to draft new constitutions upholding the 14th amendment. A period of radical reconstruction.

Radical reconstruction

Was a period in United States history, 1863-1877, that resolved the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and its system of slavery were destroyed

Civil rights act 1866

Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.

Edwin Stanton

Secretary of War appointed by Lincoln. President Andrew Johnson dismissed him in spite of the Tenure of Office Act, and as a result, Congress wanted Johnson's impeachment.


17th President of the United States, Lincoln's VP; 17th President; impeached because of his unpopular ideas about Reconstruction and held onto he office by one vote


16th president, his elected prompted southern states to secede from the Union, Believed that southern states had never left the union legally and fought south until they surrendered. Issued the Emancipation Proclamation

Appomattox Courthouse

the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War


A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners


name given to slaves who moved in mass from the former Confederacy to Kansas

Nathan bedford forest

First grand wizard of the KKK in Giles County in 1866; he led an attack on Fort Pillow that killed 300 blacks, after they surrendered, in the Civil War.

Credit mobilier

a joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.

Oliver Howard

Head of the Freedmen's Bureau which was intended to be a kind of primitive welfare agency for free blacks. Later founded and served as President of Howard University in Washington D.C.

Rutherford B. Hayes

19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history

David Davis

an independent member of the court delegation for the decision of the 1877 election, but when the Illinois legislature elected him to the U.S. Senate, he resigned from the commission and his seat went instead to a Republican justice, giving the Republicans advantage and allowing Hayes to win the election.

Horace Greeley

An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.

David Key

General in Confederate Army who becomes Hays' postmaster general according to Compromise of 1877

Compromise of 1877

Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river

president grant

Considering his military success in the Civil War, his nomination for president by the Republican Party in 1868 seemed almost inevitable. On matters of Reconstruction, he supported the efforts of the Radical Republicans to enfranchise African Americans and spoke out for the need to control secret societies known as the Ku Klux Klan in the South. Shortly after he was reelected in 1872, the nation sank into a deep depression, and corruption scandals began to plague the administration.

25th amendment

clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.

popular sovereignty

people hold the final authority in all matters of government

election of 1844

Main debate over Texas. Whigs nominate Henry Clay and democrats nominate James Polk. Polk says he will annex Texas and Oregon to make both sides happy. Polk was elected

election of 1848

Candidates: 1. Zachary Taylor-winner, honest, ignorant (whig) 2. Martin Van Buren (Free Soil Party- made slavery an issue) 3. Lewis Cass-father of popular sovereignty (Democrat). Zachary Taylor became president, died in office, making his vice president Millard Fillmore president

election of 1852

In this, the Democrats nominated Franklin Pierce, and the Whigs nominated Winfield Scott. Pierce won the presidency because he supported the Compromise of 1850.

election of 1856

In this presidential election, Democrat James Buchanan defeated Republican candidate John C. Fremont. He won the general election by denouncing the abolitionists, promising not to allow any interference with the Compromise of 1850, and supporting the principle of noninterference by Congress with slavery in the territories.

election of 1860

Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.

election of 1864

Lincoln vs. McClellan, Lincoln wants to unite North and South, McClellan wants war to end if he's elected, citizens of North are sick of war so many vote for McClellan, Lincoln wins

election of 1868

The Republicans nominated General Grant for the presidency in 1868. The Republican Party supported the continuation of the Reconstruction of the South, while Grant stood on the platform of "just having peace."The Democrats nominated Horatio Seymour. Grant won the election of 1868.

election of 1872

President Grant was renominated, without opposition, at the Republican convention at Philadelphia in June 1872. The Republican platform condemned racial and religious discrimination and called for granting women greater rights. President Grant's opponent was Horace Greeley of New York. He was first nominated by the "Liberal Republicans" who wished to protest the corruption of the Grant administration. The Democrats were in such disarray that they were unable to select a candidate and therefore endorsed Greeley. Greeley's campaign primarily on the theme of "more honest government". Most Americans still found Grant popular, and were convinced that he was not responsible for the corruption in his administration. Thus, they re-elected Grant.

election of 1876

Race for the presidency between Republican Rutherford B Hayes and Democrat Samuel J Tilden. The decision of the winner came down to congress but no one knew which house should vote because the Senate was Republican and the House of Reps was Democratic. Congress created a Special Electoral Commission consisting of 5 senators, 5 House Reps, and 5 justices from the Supreme court. Votes went 8-7 in favor of Hayes.

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