NBE Anatomy Compend

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cellular levellevel 2 of body organization it is the smallest functional unit/level, posses's the "magical qualities" ability to respond to stimuli, take in food & water, give off waste, grow and reproducetissue levellevel 3 of body organization arranged for a particular performanceepithelial tissuegeneral category of tissue which covers the outer surface of many body parts and lining the inner surfaces of body cavities and organsmembraneany thin sheet-like expanse of tissue, and many body membranes are epithelial in naturemucous membranelines the body cavities which open out on the surface of the body and SECRETE mucous, thick slippery like substance that helps keep the body parts soft and moistserous membranelines closed body cavities (chest or abdominal), secretes serum, serves as a lubricating substance to reduce friction between body partsconnective tissueserves to protect, support, and bind body parts togetherareolar tissueloose tissue, scattered irregular fibers embedded in a soft gel-like base, serves as "glue" -type of connective tissueadipose tissuefatty tissue, stores fat -type of connective tissuefibrous tissuestrong, bundles of tissue which provides strength and support ex: tendons, ligaments, fascia -type of connective tissuebonehardened, calcified tissue -type of connective tissuecartilagesofter more flexible consistency than bone -type of connective tissuehemopoietic tissueblood forming tissue, it's the blood itself, specialized tissue found in red bone marrow and in such areas as the spleen, tonsils, and lymph nodes -type of connective tissue (liquid)muscle tissuemain category body tissue, responsible for the moving of the body partsnervous tissuethe various parts of the nervous system, receives stimuli, conducting impulses, having control of body functionsorgan levelgroup of tissues arranged for the performance of some functionsystem levela group of organs arranged for the performance of the same particular functionskeletal systemthe bones, cartilage, and ligaments which provide support and protection to the bodycirculatory systemthe heart, the blood and blood vessels, plus lymphatic system serving to transport gases, nutrients, and waste product through out the body, plus helping to protect it against disease.muscular systemall of the body's muscles which are concerned primarily with movement of body partsendocrine systemthe group of glands which give off secretions which serve as chemical regulators of various bodily functionsnervous systemthe brain, the spinal cord, and nerves which have overall control over bodily functions and serve to coordinate the performance of tasks by various cells, tissue, and organs in the bodydigestive systemthe various organs concerned with the taking in of food products, breaking them down so nutrients can be absorbed, and the elimination of solid waste productsurinary systemthe kidneys and related organs which serve to clean waste products from the blood and maintain proper fluids and chemical balances in the bodyrespiratory systemthe lungs and other organs concerned with taking in oxygen and the elimination of other respiratory gasesreproductive systemthose organs both male and female which are involved in reproduction of the species and the development of sexual characteristicsintegumentary systemsthe skin and it's components which are involved in covering and protecting the body as a whole, as well as such functions as temperature regulation and acting as a sensory organanatomical positionassumes the body is always standing erect and facing the observer with palms facing forwardplanescuts the body into different partssagittal planecuts the body from the front to the back resulting in left and right partsmid-sagittal or median planeequal left and right partsbi-lateral symmetryrefers to the face that the median plane and only the median plane divides the body into two equal or symmetrical halvesfrontal or coronal planea vertical plane which cuts the body from side to side, at right angles to the median plane and results in front and back parts of the bodyhorizontal, transverse, or cross planeone which cuts the body horizontally or crosswise and results in upper and lower body partsmedialrefers to something which is located toward the mid-line or median plane of the bodylateralrefers to a location away from the median plane or towards the sides of the body or body partsuperior, cranial or cephalicrefers to something located toward the head or upper part of the bodyinferior or caudalrefers to the "tail" or lower part of the bodyanterior or ventralused to mean toward the front of the bodyposterior or dorsalmeans toward the back of the bodydeep, central, or internalrefers to something which is located toward the interior or center of the body or body part and away from the surfacesuperficial, external, or peripheralmeans toward the surface or edges of the body or body partvisceralrefers to the organs contained within the body cavitiesparietalrefers to the walls of a body cavityproximalrefers to something which is located toward or closer to the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk of the bodydistalmeans farther away from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunkpronerefers to a position of the body when it is lying face down (palms down)supinerefers to when the body is lying face up (palms up)headfirst subdivision of gross anatomycraniumsubdivision of the first subdivision (head) of gross anatomy, consists of 8 bones which form the cranial cavity, which houses the brainfacetotal of 14 bones, subdivision of the headneck areasecond subdivision of anatomytrunk/torsothird subdivision of anatomy contains: thorax, pelvis, abdomenupper extremetiesfourth subdivision of anatomy contains: arms, pectoral girdle which contains: shoulder blades, collar boneslower extremetiesfifth subdivision of gross anatomy contains:legs, pelvic girdle, hip bonesdorsal cavitymain body cavity contains cranial cavitycranial cavitycontains: brain, spinal cavityventral cavitythe large cavity contained within the trunk of the bodythoracic cavitythe upper trunk/torso within the chest area is referred to as:pleural cavitythe spaces around the lungs between the two layers of pleura which are serous membranes covering over each of the lungspericardial cavitythe space around the heart between the pericardium which is a sac-like structure covering the heartmediastinal cavitythe area in the center of the thorax from the base of the neck to the diaphragm and in-between the lungs:abdominopelvic cavitythe part of the ventral cavity below the diaphragmintegumentary systemthe skinthe two layers of skinepidermis: outer layer (made of epithelial tissue) and dermis: inner layer (made of connective tissue)Albinismabsence of melanin cells in the skinossificationformation of the bonescompact bonethe outer layer or shell of a bone, usually very densehaversian systemsintercellular substances and minute canals for blood vessels with a structural arrangement of circular ringscancellous bonethe interior part of the bones are "spongy" or porusperiosteumthe covering of the bones that is a tough outer membranefunction of bonesupport, protection, movemen: levers or points of attachment, storage: storage areas for minerals, hemopoiesis: production of bone marrowbones in the human skeleton206 classified bonessutural bones"unclassified bones", small chip-like pieces of bones sometimes found embedded between the cranial bones (point at which the cranial bones meet)sesamoid bones"unclassified bones", resembles a sesame seed, small variable bones are found embedded in tendons most often where pressure existsaxial skeletonskull, hyoid bone, thorax, spineappendicular skeletonupper extremities, pectoral girdle, lower extremities, pelvic girdle 126 bonesskullcontains 28 bones divided into 3 categories: cranium, face, ear bonesfrontal bonethe bone that forms the forehead area, the front, top of the cranium and the upper part of the eye socketssupraorbital marginsthe upper rim of the eye socketssuperciliary archeselevations at and above the medial ends of the eyebrowsglabellaa prominence just above the nasal bones between the medial eyebrowsfrontal eminencesdescribed as gently rounded prominences at the upper border of the foreheadfrontal sinusescavities that communicate with nasal passagesparietal bonesform the majority of the upper sides and top of the craniumtemporal bonesforms the lower sides of the cranium, basically surrounding the eyessquamathe upper flat portion adjacent to the parietal boneszygomatic processa projection on the temporal bones which extends forward, anterior to the hearing canalsmastoid processa prominent projection on the inferior part of the temporal bone just behind the lobe of the earexternal auditory meatushearing canal, a tunnel in the temporal bone which extends medially from the external ear to the middle earmandibular fossaa depression on the temporal bone, anterior to the external auditory meatuscarotid canala passageway in the temporal bone through which the internal carotid artery passes in taking blood to the brainoccipital bonemakes up the lower back part of the craniumforamen magnumthe large opening in the inferior portion of the occipital bone, through which the spinal cord passes to connect to the brainoccipital condyleslocated on either side of the foramen magnum articulated with the top bone of the spinal columnexternal occipital protuberancethe prominent tubercle on the posterior surface of the occipital bonesphenoid bonedescribed as the "bat-shaped" bone, helps make up the floor of the cranial cavity, the back of the eye sockets, and part of the temple areaparanasal sinusesknown as the sphenoid sinusescribform platethe flat superior surface of the ethmoid bone, contains small holes for the passage of nerves into the nasal cavityqlacrimal bonestwo bones located in the anterior, medial portion of the eye socketszygomatic or malar bonesknown as the cheek bones, help form the eye socketspalatine bonestwo small bones that help form the posterior part of the roof of the mouthmaxillary bones or maxillathe upper jaw bonesalveolar processpart of the maxilla into which the roots of the teeth are embeddedvomer bonelocated on the midline in the base of the nasal cavitypalatine processhorizontal portion of the maxilla, which forms the anterior portion of the roof of the mouthmandiblethe lower jaw bonenasal bonestwo small bones making up the area we know as the bridge of the noseramusvertical, posterior portion of the mandiblemental eminenceinferior, anterior part of the mandible "tip of the chin"auditory ossiclesthree tiny ear bonesmalleushammerincusanvilstapesstirruphyoid bonea horseshoe shaped bone located in the cervical region just above the voice boxvertebraethe bones of the spinal column, arranged in a way which allows both strength and support plus flexibility and movementcervical vertebraeupper seven vertebrae in the neck areaatlasthe most superior of the cervical vertebrae known as C-1axisbelow the atlas known as C-2thoracic vertebraethe twelve vertebrae inferior to the cervical region, t-1 through t-12lumbar vertebraeinferior to the thoracic vertebrae are five in the lower back area, L-1 through L-5sacrumimmediately inferior to L-5 which is actually a bone resulting from the fusion of 5 separate vertebrae in a developing child, and also helps form the hip areacoccyxmost inferior vertebrae referred to as the "tail bone"`thoraxchest area consists of thoracic vertebrae, the ribs, and the sternumsternumbreastboneribs12 pairs of ribs seven of which are attached by costal cartilage directly to the sternumfalse ribsbottom 5 pair of ribs that do not attach directly to the sternumtrue ribsupper seven pairfloating ribsribs number 11 and 12 no anterior cartilagesclaviclescollar bonesscapulaeshoulder bladesacromionlandmark of the scapulaecoracoid processserves as an anchoring point for several muscleshumerusshoulderhumeral condylesthe inferior end of the humerus contains smooth, curved articular surfacesradius and ulnaforms the elbowcarpalswristbonesmetacarpalsbones of the hand, five in each handphalangesbones that make up the fingers and toesos coxahip bonesiliumthe broad superior portion of the os coxailiac crestthe upper rim of the os coxaischiumthe inferior portion of the hip which we sit onpubis or pubic bonethe inferior anterior segment just above the genital regionfemurlarge bone of the upper legpatellakneecaptibiashin bonetibial crestthe pronounced ridge of the shin bonemedial malleolusdistal end of the tibialateral malleolus"outside" ankle bonefibulathe lateral bone of the lower legtarsalsthe bones that make up the ankle areametatarsalsthe bones of the anklearthrologythe study of articulationssynarthrosisimmovable articulationamphiarthrosesslightly moveable articulationsdiarthrosesfreely moveable articulationsligamentstough bands of fibrous connective tissue which help to stabilize dirarthiticbursaesmall fluid filled sacs associated with the jointsAnatomystudy of body structureSuperficialinvolving a surface only; a location close to the surface of the body or a body partVomerthin trapezoidal bone of the skull forming the posterior and inferior parts of the nasal septumReproductivetestes, ovaries, and the associated accessory organs. It forms new individuals to provide the continuation of the human species; A term that identifies one of the body systems is:Fossaa concavity in a bone (especially an anatomical depression).Protoplasmthe basic substance of all life (cell composition) is:Coronal planeimaginary line passing through the body from head to feet that divides the body into front and back portions; at right angles to the mid-sagittal planeTorsothe body excluding the head and neck and limbs500The number of regular and constant bones in the make-up of the human skeleton is:Ulnathe inner and longer of the two bones of the human forearm; The olecranon process is located on the:Epithelialtissue covers internal and external surfaces of bodyOsteologythe study of the bones and the disorders and diseases of the skeletal systemMaxillaupper jaw boneAbdominalregion between the thorax and pelvis.Inferioraway from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; belowMedian planeAn imaginary line dividing the body or body part into right and left portions.Endocrineany of the glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream; One of the body's systemsCadavera dead body, esp. a human body to be dissectedHistologythe branch of biology that studies the microscopic structure of animal or plant tissuesAnteriorof or near the head end or toward the front plane of the bodyPhysiologyscience dealing with the functions of living things or their organsConnectiveblood is categorized as this general type of tissueCraniumthe part of the skull that encloses the brainTemporal bonea thick bone forming the side of the human cranium and encasing the inner ear; the auditory ossicles are contained within the:Axialfundamental division of our body. Makes up the main axis of our body, includes the head, neck, and trunk.Mandiblelower jawbone; largest and strongest bone of the face; NOT a cranial boneSphenoid boneThis single bone is considered a cranial bone. It articulates with every other cranial bone. It also articulates with the zygomatic, vomer, maxillary, and palatine bones. It has many important landmarks including: the greater and lesser wings, the sinuses, the sella turcica, and the pterygoid processes. It also has a number of significant foramina including,: rotundum, ovale, the optic canal, the superior orbital fissure, as well as others.Visceral(adj) obtained through intuition rather than from reasoning or observation; felt in one's inner organs; (n) viscera: internal body organs; CF. eviscerateTransverse planehorizontal division of the body into upper and lower portionsZoologythe branch of biology that studies animalsAortathe large trunk artery that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteriesAngiologythe branch of medical science that studies the blood and lymph vessels and their disorders; The study of the vascular systemCircle of Willis-Ant and post cerebral arteries connect at the base of the brain to form a circle the ant and post cerebral arteries joined by post communicating artery -the right and left ant cerebral arteries joined by the ant communicating artery -failure of one of these usually does not seriously decrease blood flow to the regionUlnar Artery• Gives rise to ulnar recurrent arteries (anastomoses around elbow) • Gives rise to common interosseous artery • Travels with ulnar nerve along medial aspect of forearm • Courses superficial to flexor retinaculum with ulnar nerve (can palpate ulnar pulse here) • Gives rise to superficial palmar arch which provides primary blood supply to the common and proper digital arteries • Anastomoses with the radial artery via the superficial and deep palmar archesSubclavian ArteryRight: branches off the brachiocephalic artery, carries blood to right shoulder and upper limb Left: 3rd branch of the aortic arch, carries blood to left shoulder and upper limbBrainThe part of the central nervous system that is located in the skull and controls most functions in the body; the internal carotid artery is the main blood supplyCardiac cyclethe complete cycle of events in the heart from the beginning of one heart beat to the beginning of the nextAtrial systolethe contraction of both right and left atria, lasting for 0.1 secVentricles diastolerelaxed and therefore can become filled with blood as the atria contract.Radial Arterysupplies blood to the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand; supplies the muscles of the skin, hands and fingers, wrist, elbow and forearm; The pulse is usually taken in the:Anterior cerebral arterybranch off internal carotid artery that supplies the medial portion of the frontal and parietal lobes, L and R are connected by the anterior communicating artery as part of circle of willisFemoral Artery• Primary source of blood to lower extremity • Continuation of external iliac artery (change names at inguinal ligament) • Femoral pulse can be felt just inferior to the midpoint of the inguinal ligament, with patient in supine position. Compression at this location will stop blood flow through the femoral artery. • Supplies anterior and medial compartments of thigh; The artery that is transmitted through the adductor canal is the:Basilar Arterythe basilar artery and the two internal carotid arteries anastomose to form the Circle of Willis, which serves as the major blood supplier to the brain; An unpaired arteryAscending aortathe portion of the aorta that emerges from the left ventricle posterior to the pulmonary trunk. Contains the aortic valve. Gives off two coronary artery branches that supply the myocardium. Arches to form the aortic arch: 2 to 2.5 inches longExternal iliac arteryAn artery closely associated with the inguinal ligament is thethe right lymph ductIs a tributary to the right brachiocephalic veinMedialIn relation to the lungs, the heart lies:Axillary veinThe basilic vein terminates by emptying into the:Maxillary arteryeither of two arteries branching from the external carotid artery and supplying structure of the facePortal systemWhen blood flows through two consecutive capillary networks before returning to the heart such as in the hypothalamus-anterior pituitary, the kidneys, and in the liver, what is this called?Internal Carotid Arterythe branch of the carotid artery that supplies blood to the brain and eyes and internal parts of the head. Branches in to the anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery other minor branches: the ophthalamic artery, posterior communicating artery, anterior choroidal artery; Involved in the make up of the Circle of WillisVenulessmall veins that do not have three tunics but instead have only an endothelium, a basement membrane, and a few smooth muscle cellsInferior vena cavareceives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heartBrachiocephalic artery1. 1st and largest branch of Aortic Arch 2. Found only on the right side. 3. There is only ONE brachiocephalic artery 4. Has 2 Branches (Right Common Carotid Artery, Right Subclavian Artery)LiverThe portal system is considered to terminate in the:Inferior vena cavaThe renal veins are tributaries to the:Three branchesThe arch of the aorta gives off:Esophageal arteriesemerge from the anterior wall of the descending thoracic aorta and supply the esophagusDescending thoracic aortathe part of the aorta that runs from the arch of the aorta to the diaphragm, gives off numerous branches that supply oxygenated blood to the chest cage and the organs within the chest.Cystic artery1. one of three branches of the hepatic artery proper 2. usually arises from the right hepatic artery 3. supplies the gall bladder (ligated in gall bladder removal)Ascending aortathe portion of the aorta that emerges from the left ventricle posterior to the pulmonary trunk. Contains the aortic valve. Gives off two coronary artery branches that supply the myocardium. Arches to form the aortic arch.Femoral veinAccompany the femoral arteries and are the continuations of the popliteal veins just superior to the knee. Extend up the posterior surface of the thighs and drain the muscles of the thighs, femurs, external genitals, and superficial lymph nodes; longest vein in the body; The external iliac vein arises as the continuation of the:lower neck areaLymph is returned to the blood circulation in theTricuspid valvevalve with three cusps, located between the right atrium and the right ventricle. closes when the right ventricle contracts, allowing blood flow into the lungs and prevent backflow into the right atriumabdominal aorta*Celiac artery, supplies Organs of upper digestive tract *Superior mesenteric artery, supplies Portions of small and large intestines *Suprarenal artery, supplies Adrenal gland *Renal artery, supplies Kidney *Gonadal artery, supplies Ovary or testis *Inferior mesenteric, supplies artery Lower portions of large intestine *Lumbar artery, supplies Posterior abdominal wall *Middle sacral artery, supplies Sacrum and coccyx *Common iliac artery, supplies Lower abdominal wall, pelvic organs, and lower limbRight AtriumThe coronary sinus orifice is in which wall of the heartErythrocytesRed blood cells that transport oxygenGreat Saphenous veinlargest vein in the leg and often becomes varicose due to gravity and standing for long periods of time; A vein that arises from the dorsal venous network of the footGross anatomythe study of the structure of the body and its parts without the use of a microscopeFaceThe retromandibular vein is a vein of theCapillariesthe smallest blood vessels which connect the smallest arteries with the smallest veins. Nourishment and fluid noramlly trapped in thick walled arteries and veins can easily pass through the delicate walls of these; Most of the blood volume of the body, at any given time, will be found in the;Descending ileocolic arteryThe appendicular artery arises as a branch of theAxillary veinFormed in the arm by the union of the brachial and basilic veins, it accompanies the axillary artery through the axilla and terminates over the the lateral border of the first rib by becoming the subclavian vein:Convey blood in a general direction away from the heartThe arteries of the bodySerumThe liquid portion of clotted blood is called:Hemiazygos veinThe accessory hemiazygos vein is a tributary to theHeartThe papillary muscles are found in the make-up of thePhlebologyStudy of veins (a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the veins).Female gonadsThe ovarian arteries supply blood to theAortaThe artery that is most closely associated with the left ventricle of the heart is theLeft atriumThe pulmonary venous orifices are in which wall of the heartLingual arteryBlood is supplied to the tongue through the:Brachiocephalic veinThe internal jugular vein empties into the:histologythe branch of biology that studies the microscopic structure of animal or plant tissues; the study of human body with the aid of a microscope is called:linear guidea line drawn or visualized on the surface of the skin to represent the approximate location of some deeper lying structurenailsprotect the dorsal surface of the last bone of each toe and finger; derivatives of the integumentary systemaxial and appendicularThe two divisions of the skeleton are:alimentary canalWhich one of the following is a term used to refer to the digestive tract ?urinary bladderWhich of the following is a hollow organ situated in the pelvic cavity posterior to the symphysis pubis ?Graafian follicleThe ovarian follicle is also known as the:external and internalRespiration is broadly divided into which of the following two areas ?AngiologyThe study of the circulatory system is also known as:HeterocrineGlands which carry out both endocrine and exocrine functions are referred to as:NeurologyThe study of the nervous system is called:OccipitofrontalisThe galea aponeurotica is the tendon of which one of the following muscles ?RadialThe artery which supplies arterial solution directly into the thumb side of the hand is the:Epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethraChoose the correct path that spermatozoa would take as it leaves the testesRadialWhat artery might you raise to inject the upper extremity below the cubital fossa ?PelvicWhat cavity would the tip of the trocar be placed into in order to aspirate the urinary bladder ?SartoriusWhich of the following muscles is found in the lower extremity ?TemporalWhich of the following bones are located within the craniumMaxillaWhich of the following bones are located within the bones of the facetrumpeters muscleThe buccinator muscle is also referred to as the:FundusWhich portion of the stomach is the most superiorUlnar arteryThe anatomical guide that lies lateral to the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscleleft ventricleAfter blood passes the mitral value, it will be in the:AnastomosesThe union of two arteries is called:AdrenalWhat gland is part of the endocrine system ?Zygomayoke.XiphoidSword-shaped.Visceralinternal organsVentriclea chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium and pumps it to the arteriesVascularpertaining to or containing blood vessels; indicative of a copious blood supplyVermiform Appendixwormlike projection of lymphatic tissue hanging off the cecum with no digestive function (may help fight infection)Ventraltoward or on or near the belly (front of a primate or lower surface of a lower animal)Veinsblood vessels that carry blood back to the heartVastuswide, of great sizeVasVessel or ductValveStructure that permits flow of a fluid in one directionUvulasmall projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate, named for its (Latin little grape-like) shapeUrethratube that carries urine from the urinary bladder and releases it from the external surface of the body; in males, tube through which semen is released from the bodyUretertube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladderTunicsOne of the outer layers of a part, especially of a hollow organ or blood vesselTunica MediaThe middle, usually muscular, coat of an artery or other tubular structureTunica Intima (Interna)The inner, serous coat of an arteryTunica Adventitia (Externa)The outer, fibroelastic coat of a blood vessel or other tubular structureTuberosityA large, rounded projection; example, ischial tuberosity.Tuberclea small, rounded projection; example rib tuberclesTrochanterA very large projection; example, greater trochanter of the femurTracheawindpipeTransverse ColonThe part of the colon that passes horizontally across the abdomen,Transversehorizontal field dividing the body into upper and lower portionsTibiaShin bone. On medial side of the leg. Bears most of the weightThoraxchestTendona cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle with its bony attachmentSystemsmade up of groups of organs that work togetherPalpebraeeyelidsPancreaslocated partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagonParietalpertaining to the wall of a cavity or an organParotidSalivary gland near the earPectinealpertaining to the pubic bone.Phalangesbones of the fingers and toesPectoralpertaining to the chest or breastPeripheralnear the surface or outside of; externalPharynxthroat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynxPhrenicpertaining to the diaphragmPlasmacolorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspendedPoplitealposterior knee areaPosterior (Dorsal)toward the back of the bodyProcessprojection or outgrowthPronateto place in the prone positionProstate Glandproduces a milky/white secretion that helps mobilze sperm and neutralize semen in the vagina, each ejaculatory duct passes through the prostate gland, muscular action of prostate gland aids in expelling semen from the bodyProtuberanceSomething that swells out from a surrounding surface.Proximalsituated nearest to point of attachment or originPyloric sphincterring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the duodenumRamusbranchRenalPertaining to the kidney.Respiratory SystemThe organ system responsible for the intake of oxygen and diffusion of that gas into the blood and the elimination of carbon dioxide from the body. Important structures of the system are the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs. Alveoli in the lungs are the location of gas exchange with the blood. The movement of the muscular diaphragm allows the lungs to inhale and exhale.Rugaefolds in the lining of the stomach that expands surface areaSagittallike an arrow; longitudinalSalivary Glandsthree pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glandsSclerafrom Greek for hardSesamoid Bonesbones that are usually small, round and flat and develop inside tendons; most often near joints at the knee, hands and feetSigmoid Colonportion of the colon (resembling an "S" in shape) that terminates at the rectumSinusCavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane; frontal sinusSphinctercircular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural openingSpinous Process or Spinea sharp projectionSplanchnicalso visceral; pertaining to or supplying the viscera (as in the splanchnic nerves)Superiorsituated above another structure, toward the headsupinateTo turn the palm of the hand upward; opposite of pronate.Supraorbital Marginarched ridge just below the eyebrow.SymphysisGreek for a growing togetherInferiortoward the feetInguinalarea where thigh meets body trunk; groinIntegumentaryA. Cutaneous Membrane 1. Epidermis 2. Dermis B. Hair Follicles 1. Sweat Glands 2. Subcutaneous layer C. Hair Follicles 1. Hairs 2. Sebbaceous Glands ->SensoryReceptorsAbdomenThe area between the diaphragm and the pelvisAbductto move away from the midline; opposite of adductLeft Atrium of the heartVenous circulation is considered to terminate in the:Abdominal aortaThe ovarian arteries arise as branches of theLeft ventricleThe heart chamber in which systemic circulation originatespasses through the adductor canalThe femoral veinChyleThe milk-like liquid composed of lymph and globules of digested fats coursing through the lacteals during digestion is calledRight atrium of the heartThe inferior vena caval orifice is in the wall of theCommon iliac arteriesThe arteries that arise from the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta are the:CardiologyThe study of the heart is called:Tricuspid valvelocated between the right atrium and right ventricleTunica externaoutermost layer, connective tissue, tough collagen fibers, protects the blood vessels, thickest layer in veinsPopliteal vein*Formed by confluence of peroneal & PTV *Found posterior to popliteal artery *Continues to level of adductor canal to become FV *Small saphenous vein (SSV) joins it posteriorly *Drains knee joint & skin, muscles, & bones of portions of calf & thigh around knee joint *Receives gastrocnemius & small saphenous v.Nutrient arteriesSingle or few large arteries; enter at mid-diaphysis into medullary cavity; supply inner compact and spongy boneLeft Atriumthe left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veinsLactealslocated on villi in small intestine; vessels of the lymphatic system; absorb fatty acids and glycerol and reconvert them into fatsTerminal portion of the large intestineThe inferior mesenteric artery supplies blood mainly to the:Common hepatic arteryAn unpaired arteryCephalic veinA superficial vein of the arm:Femoral arteryAn artery closely associated with the inguinal ligamentArteriologyThe study of the arteries of the body.Superior mesenteric arteryThis is a singular artery. It supplies the entire small intestines and the proximal 1/2 of the large intestines.Tissue fluidfluid that baths the cells of the body; formed when water and dissolved substances diffuse from the blood into the spaces between the cells that make up the surrounding tissuesEndocardiumthe membrane that lines the cavities of the heart and forms part of the heart valvesThe pharnyx and the middle earThe Eustachian tube forms a communication between:CaudalWhich of the following terms means "closer to the lower part of the body"?AnatomyWhich branch of science deals with the structure of an organism?Sternocleidomastoid muscleWhat is the lateral border of the Anterior Cervical Triangle?Middle of the clavicleWhat is the inferior border of the Posterior Cervical Triangle?Adductor longus muscleWhat is the medial border of the Femoral Triangle?MitochondriaWhich part of a cell is the "Power House"?1How many pairs of sex chomosomes does a human normally have?AnaphaseIn which phase of mitosis does microtubules pull chromosomes toward the centrioles?EpithelialWhich type of tissue covers and lines cavities?Simple columnarWhich type of tissue lines the stomach?FibroblastsWhat is the most common type of cell found in connective tissue?HyalineWhat is the most common type of cartilage?MembraneWhat is the simplest combination of tissue?SerousWhich type of membrane is found in the pericardial sac?1, 2, 3, and 4Which of the following is a layer of the skin? 1. Stratum basal 2. Stratum Corneum 3. Stratum granulosum 4. Stratum spinosumMedullary CavityIn which part of the bone would you find connective tissue called marrow?EpicondyleWhat is the rounded projection on a bone situated above a condyle and provides attachments for ligaments and tendons?22How many bones make up the skull?SphenoidWhich bone resembles bat wingsVomerWhat bone is the lower and posterior part of the nasal septum?33How many vertebrae does an infant have?5How many lumbar vertebrae does an adult human have?HyoidWhat is the horseshoe shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone in the body?CapitulumWhat is the knob like structure located on the lateral side of the humerus and receives the ulna when the arm is straight?SyndesmologyWhat is the branch of anatomy that deals with ligaments and related joints?AbductionWhat muscle action moves the muscle away from the midline?InfraspinatusWhich muscle rotates the arm laterally?Pubic boneWhat is the origin of the adductor longus muscle?ThighWhere is the vastus medialis muscle?32How many permanent teeth does an adult human have?Greater OmentumWhich mesentery covers most of the abdominal organs, extending inferiorly like an apron from the greater curvature of the stomach?10 inchesThe esophogus is approximately how long?LiverWhat is the largest gland in the bodyGall BladderWhat is attached to the liver by the cystic duct and stores bile?Pancreatic lypaseWhich of the pancreatic juices breaks down fats?BileWhich of the following is primarily made up of salts which help breakdown fats?CortexWhat is the outer portion of the kidney called?Minor CalyxWhat does the Renal Papilla project directly into?GlomerulusEach renal corpuscle is composed of a network of capillaries called:UreterWhich of the following drains urine from the kidney to the bladder?3How many openings does the urinary bladder have?3 and 4What is the outside opening of the urethra called? 1. Epididymus 2. Efferent duct 3. External urethral oriface 4. Urinary meatusTunica albugineaWhat is the white fibrous capsule that the testis are located in called?Ejaculatory ductWhat does the union of the Vas Deferens and the Seminal Vessicles form?The vesicular ovarian follicleWhich part of the female reproductive system produces estrogen?VulvaWhat is the entire external portion of the female reproductive organs calledRespirationWhat is the overall exchange of gases between the atmosphere, blood and cells of the body?3,2How many lobes are in the right lung and how many in the left lung?2, 3, and 4Which of the following is a divsion of the pharynx? 1. Epiglotticpharynx 2. Laryngopharynx 3. Nasopharynx 4. OropharynxThe cricoid cartilageWhat is the inferior wall of the larynx which attaches to the trachea?At the 5th thoracic vertebraeWhere does the larynx begin to divide into the right and left primary bronchi?BronchiolesName the missing section of the bronchial tree. Primary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, _________, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, aveolar ducts.Parietal pluraWhat is the outer mucous membrane layer of the lung that attaches to the wall of the thoracic cavity?EndocrineWhich type of gland has no ducts?PituitaryWhich gland is located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica of the sphenoid?AfferentWhich type of neurons are sensory neurons?TrochlearWhich nerve controls eye movement?31How many pairs of spinal nerves does the human body have?12How many pairs of thoracic nerves does the human body have?Medulla OblongataWhich part of the brain controls cardiac function?MiddleWhich cerebellar peduncle attaches to the pons?CerebrumWhich part of the brain is seperated by the longitudinal fissure?1, 2 and 4Which of the following is a meninge of the spinal cord? 1. Arachnoid 2. Dura mater 3. Insula 4. Pia materTympanic CavityWhat is another name for the middle ear?Superior RectusWhich muscle of the eye moves the eye downward to the midline?ScleraWhat is the white part of the eye called?VertebralWhich blood vessel would give collateral circulation to the head by branching off the subclavian?Common palmer digitalWhich artery supplies blood to the fingers?Left GastroepiploicWhich artery supplies blood to the greater curvature of the stomach?Inferior glutealWhich artery supplies blood to the buttocks and back of the thighHistologyThe study of the tissues of the human body with the aid of a microscope is called:Linear guideA line drawn or visualized on the surface of the skin to represent the approximate location of a more deelpy lying structure is the:NailsWhich one of the following is one of the derivatives of the integumentary system?Axial and appendicularThe two divisions of the skeleton are:Alimentary canalWhich of the following is a term used to refer to the digestive tract?Urinary bladderWhich of the following is a hollow organ situated in the pelvic cavity posteior to the symphysis pubis?Visceral layerWhich part of the membrane surrounding the heart comes into contact with the heart?External and internalRespiration is broadly divided into which of the following two areas?AngiologyThe study of the circulatory system is also known as:HeterocrineGlands which carry out both endocrine and exocrine functions are referred to as:NeurologyThe study of the nervous system is called:OccipitofrontalisThe galea aponeurotica is the tendon of which one of the following muscles?RadialThe artery which supplies aretrial solution directly into the thumb side of the hand is the:medial border of sartoriuswhat is the lateral border of the femoral triangle?adductor longuswhat is the medial border of the femoral triangle?