AP Human Geography: Political Organization of Space vocab
Terms in this set (74)
Formal act of acquiring something by conquest or occupation
The southern most continent and the site of the North Pole
segregation in South Africa
Political term to refer region that broke up
There are two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Inclusionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the U.S.-Canada border
Boundary disputes (definitional,locational,operational,allocational)
territorial dispute along the edge of two neighboring land owners
definitional-Focus on the legal language of the boundary agreement
operational-Involve neighbors who differ over the way their boundary should function
allocational-Involve neighbors who differ over the way their boundary should function
Boundary Origin -Boundaries often originated from old tribal lands and lands won in war. They were meant to establish claims to land and were often smaller historically.
Antecedent Boundary- a boundary that existed before the cultural landscape emerged and stayed in place while people moved in to occupy the surrounding area.
Subsequent Boundary -Boundaries that are created as a result of long-term processes
Superimposed Boundary -a boundary that is imposed on the cultural landscape which ignores pre-existing cultural patterns (typically a colonial boundary)...
Relic Boundary- A former boundary line that is still discernible and marked by some cultural landscape feature.
boundary ,process (definition, delimitation, demarcation)
Definition Boundary Process -Phase in which the exact location of a boundary is legally described and negotiated.
Delimitation Boundary Process- Phase in which a boundary's definition is drawn onto a map
Demarcation Boundary Process- Phase in which the boundary is visibly marked on the landscape by a fence, line, sign, wall or other means.
Natural/Physical Boundary -When a physical feature such as a mountain or river determine a political boundary
Ethnographic/Cultural -when the boundary coincides with differences in ethnicity, especially language and religion.
small neutral state between 2 rival powers
An example would be East Germany, which was a pro-Soviet Union buffer state between the Soviet Union and western Europe.
principle city in a state or country
tending to move away from a center
tending to move towards a center
City with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one
the act of forming an alliance or confederation
Conference of Berlin (1884)
Regulated trade and colonization in Africa. It formalized the scramble to gain colonies in Africa and set up boundaries for each country's colonies.
a region in the home range that is used frequently. Fruiting trees,termite mounds, sleeping sites, water resources.
the action of changing from colonial to independent status
the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone)
a sea zone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources stretching 200 nautical miles from the coast. The country that controls the EEZ has rights to the fishing, whaling, etc., as well as the raw material resources.
the different voting districts that make up local, state, and national regions.
an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it
a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.
A war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism or fight over natural
resources. Ethnic conflict often includes genocide. It can also be caused by boundary disputes.
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
An internal organization of a state that allocated most powers to units of local government.
capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.
A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
those parts of our environment available to everyone but for which no single individual has responsibility--the atmosphere, fresh water, forests, wildlife, and ocean fisheries
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world./ Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.
a type of receiving state which is the target of many immigrants. Immigrant states are popular because of their economy, political freedom, and opportunity (e.g., US, Germany,...).
An organization that transcends national borders and takes an active roll in the affairs of two or more nations. The United Nations is an example.
The title given to the dividing line between democratic western Europe and Communist eastern Europe following the second world war. The title was given by Sir Winston Churchill during a lecture series and it had a contemporary in Asia, the Bamboo Curtain.
A position that promotes the annexation of territory in pursuit of ethnic homogeneity or on the basis of claims to past ownership. This is a driving force in conflict over Taiwan, the restoration of Israel to Jewish Nationals,and other areas of conflic
Names given to the area of the middle east that runs along the Mediterranean down to the Red Sea, including the important religious city of Jerusalem and other sites important in Western Religion. Jewish/Israeli dominance of the region lead to conflict.
Name given to a state that has no direct access to the Ocean or other ample body of water. This is a major impediment to international trade and internal development.
Law of the Sea
Body of public international law dealing with navigational rights, mineral rights, jurisdiction over coastal waters and international law governing relationship between nations.
Mountainous country in Western Asia on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean sea. Syria is o the N and the E, Israel is to the S. It's government is based on a community-based power-sharing mechanism. Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990) Israeli war (2006)
English geographer and geopolitician who argued that physical and human geography should be treated as a single discipline. He also claimed that whoever controlled the heartland, controls Eurasia, and hence the entire world.
the belief that the U.S. would to expand from Atlantic Seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. This has been used to advocate or justify other territorial acquisitions. It is also the belief that it is a mission to defend democracy.
an approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the mid-point between two places. eg. the great lakes between Canada and the U.S.
a state that encompasses a very small land area
state or territory that is small in both population and area (e.g., Vatican City, Monaco,...)
A homogenous group of people with no political boundaries
the branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images.
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
the largest and newest territory of Canada; it was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999.
a phrase borrowed from French where it means simply "reason for being"; in English use it also comes to suggest a degree of rationalization, as "The claimed reason for the existence of something or someone".
a new apportionment (especially a reallotment of congressional seats in the United States on the basis of census results)
a political ideology that focuses on the interests of a particular region or group of regions, whether traditional or formal (administrative divisions, country subdivisions, political divisions, subnational units).
either intolerance motivated by one's own religious beliefs or intolerance against another's religious beliefs or practices.
The political unification of seperate political entities which had been previously united
A political term that refers to a country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country.
concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.
a region caught between stronger colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, and often fragmented by aggressive rivals (e.g., Israel or Kashmir today; Eastern Europe during the Cold War,...)
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states; self-governing
a politically organized body of people under a single government
stateless ethnic groups
ethnic groups that does not have a political boundaries to be identified as a nation. ex) Kurds, Berbers, Palestinians, Kashmir's, Sikhs, Tibetans, Saharawis, Basques
term used to a nation, minority ethnic group without a country. a nation without a state (e.g., Kurds, Palestinians,
civil right to vote and exercise of that right
an alliance involving 3 or more countries for their mutual benefit such as economic, cultural or political/ military. ex: United Nations, European Union, African
A disagreement over the possession or control of land between two or more states or over the possession for reasons such as natural resources
study of states' shapes and their effects
-Compact: distance from geometric center is similar (e.g., Germany, Hungary,...)
-Elongated: a.k.a. attenuated (e.g., Chile, Vietnam,...)
-Fragmented: two or more separate pieces (e.g., Indonesia, Philippines,...)
-Perforated: territory completely surrounds that of another state (e.g., Italy, Azerbaijan,...)
-Protruded: a.k.a. prorupt; have an area that extends from a more compact core (e.g,
Attachment to or protection of a territory
a state whose government is either believed to be divinely guided or a state under the control of a group of religious leaders (e.g., Iran, Saudi Arabia, Vatican City (Holy See)).
(Treaty Port); A port in China, Korea, or Japan that once was open to foreign trade on the basis of a trading treaty.
UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)
an international agreement, which defines the rights and responsibilities in their use of the world's oceans.
characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is held by one central authority
The collapse of the USSR because Socialism failed economically, outside opposition (Capitalist countries) and Nationalism within the republics, competition with the West (They wanted equality with USA, but had no money), and party officials were killed for personal gain, weakening the party
women's right to vote