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35 terms

UNIT 2 The Kingdoms of West Africa

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Timbuktu
Had lots of Salt, used it to trade, home to Sankore University, Jingaray Ber University and Sidi Yahya University
Sankore University
offered degrees in science, theology, astronomy, medicine, literature, and Islamic law. 10 years of studying
Wangara
Soninke clans, who specialised in trade, Islamic scholarship and law
Taghaza
Largest salt mine, located in desert region of northern Mali.
Gao
Capital of the Songhai Empire, important commercial centre for the trans-Saharan trade
Kingdom of Ghana
Capital is Koumbi Saleh, Grew rich from the Trans-Saharan trade, especially in gold and salt. Spoke Soninke and Mande.
Kingdom of Mali
Founded by Sundiata Keita. Renowned for the wealth of owners. Most famous is Mansa Musa I. Great cultural influences on West Africa
Kingdom of Songhai
Songhai was the last and final great empire of West Africa. a very big trading city back then where many people would trade things like gold for salt
Geographic determinism
the idea that a people's lifestyle and culture will be affected by interaction with the surrounding geography and climate
Sahara Desert
the largest desert in the world, covering most of northern Africa
Senegal River
River that flows through several West Africa countries and form the border between Mauritania and Senegal.
Niger River
located in West Africa, its rich soil gave rise to several civilizations; it also helped unite the region by enabling merchants and travelers to spread goods and ideas up and down the river
Morocco
a kingdom (constitutional monarchy) in northwestern Africa with a largely Muslim population
Mansa Musa
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.
Askia Mohammed Toure
An Emperor of the Songhai empire, strengthened empire and made it the largest empire in Western Africa. Made Islam and integral part of the empire.
Ibn Battuta
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
Al Saheli
A Spanish architect who showed the Africans a new building style and built mosques
Almoravids
A puritanical reformist movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of northern Africa; controlled gold trade across Sahara; conquered Ghana in 1076; moved southward against African kingdoms of the savanna and the westward into Spain
Islam and its impact on art, architecture, language etc
Introduced different types of art such as patterns, contributed largely to architecture, people started to learn Islamic
Five pillars of Islam
Declaration of faith, prayer, alms, fasting, and pilgrimage
Trade routes
Waterways, paths, and trails that traders used to move goods for exchange from one place to another.
Trans-Sahara trade route
This was the route that the first caravan of camels headed west into the Sahara Desert to begin trade from Eastern Africa to Western Africa
Camels
Pack animals that made cross-Sahara caravans possible
Salt
Main source of the Kingdom of Ghana's wealth, used to keep foods fresh
Gold
One of the main products traded in the Trans-Sahara trade route
Scarcity
a small and inadequate amount
Silent bartering
Traders used this kind of trading as means to exchange salt for gold because they could not speak eachother's languages.
Patrilineal
based on or tracing descent through the male line
Matrilineal
based on or tracing descent through the female line
Catalyst
something that causes an important event to happen
Turning point
an event marking a unique or important historical change of course or one on which important developments depend
Change
the action of changing something
Continuity
the property of a continuous and connected period of time
Progress
gradual improvement or growth or development
Regress
returning to a former state