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Chapter 10-Waves

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wave
a repeating disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter or space (waves carry energy WITHOUT transporting matter); they are produced by something that vibrates
medium
the matter in which a wave travels; can be solid, liquid, gas, or a combination
mechanical waves
these waves can ONLY travel through matter; the two types of mechanical waves are transverse waves and compressional waves
transverse wave
wave for which the matter in the medium moves back and forth at right angles to the direction the wave travels; has crests and troughs
compressional wave
a wave for which the matter in the medium moves back and forth along the direction that the wave travels (ex: sound waves)
crests
the highest points on a transverse wave
troughs
the lowest points on a transverse wave
rarefactions
the least dense regions of a compressional wave
compressions
the high density regions of a compressional wave
wavelength
the distance betweenone point on a wave and the nearest point just like it
frequency
the number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point each second; is expressed in hertz(Hz) As frequency increases, wavelength decreases
period
the amount of time it takes one wavelength to pass a fixed point; is expressed in seconds
wave speed equation
speed=frequency(Hz) X wavelength
wave speed depends on the material it is traveling in and the temperature
amplitude
a measure of the energy carried by a wave; the greater a wave's amplitude, the more energy it carries
amplitude in a compressional wave
related to how tightly the medium is pushed together at the compressions (the less dense the medium is aat the rarefactions, the more enefgy the wave carries)
amplitude of a transverse wave
the distance from the crest or trough to the rest position of the medium
the law of reflection
the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
refraction
the bending of a wave as it changes speed in moving from one medium to another
diffraction
the bending of waves around an obstacle; can also occur when waves pass through a narrow opening; the effects of diffraction are greatest when the wavelength is nearly the obstacle's size
interference
occurs when two or more waves overlap and combine to form a new wave
standing wave
a wave pattern that forms when waves of equal wavelength and amplitude, but traveling in opposite directions, continuously interfere with each other; has points called nodes that do not move
resonance
the process by which an object is made to vibrate by absorbing energy at its natural frequencies