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38 terms

Anatomy and Phys chapter 12

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Angina Pectoris
a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
Arteriole
one of the small thin-walled arteries that end in capillaries
Artery
large blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the tissues of the body
Atrioventricular Valve
either of two heart valves through which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles
Atrium
any chamber that is connected to other chambers or passageways (especially one of the two upper chambers of the heart)
Bicuspid Valve
located between the left atrium and left ventricle
Capilary
The smalles of all blodo vessles, typically having a diamtere just large neough for blood cells to pass through in single file. Capillaries have extremelyu thin walls to faciliate the exchange of material between the blood and the tissues.
Cardiac Output
the amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles in a given period of time
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
an emergency procedure consisting of external cardiac massage and artificial respiration
Coronary Bypass Surgery
open-heart surgery in which the rib cage is opened and a section of a blood vessel is grafted from the aorta to the coronary artery to bypass the blocked section of the coronary artery and improve the blood supply to the heart
Coronary Circulation
circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
Diastolic Pressure
the blood pressure (as measured by a sphygmomanometer) after the contraction of the heart while the chambers of the heart refill with blood
Ductus Arteriosus
a blood vessel in a fetus that bypasses pulmonary circulation by connecting the pulmonary artery directly to the ascending aorta
Ductus Venosus
the fetal structure that allows most of the blood to bypass the liver and to flow from the umbilical vein to the vena cava
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
a record of the electrical activity of the heart that, if abnormal, may indicate heart disease
Endocarditis
inflammation of the endocardium and heart valves
Endocardium
the membrane that lines the cavities of the heart and forms part of the heart valves
Foramen Ovale
Connects the left and right atria, allowing blood to flow directly from the right to the left side of the heart
Hepatic Portal Circulation
system of blood movement through the digestive tract and liver
Mitral Valve
a valve in the heart that guards the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle
Myocardial Infarction
destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle
Myocardium
thick middle muscle layer of the heart; pumps blood through the circulatory system
P Wave
a type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground
Pacemaker
a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat
Pericardium
a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart
Pulmonary Circulation
circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
Pulse
the rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart
Purkinje Fibers
fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract
QRS Complex
in ECG corresponding to depolarization of ventrical membranes, much stronger!!
Semilunar Valve
a valve stopping blood from flowing back into the ventricles from the arteries
Sinoatrial Node
small, elongated mass of specialized cardiac muscle tissue just beneath the epicardium in the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava-starts impulses
Systemic Circulation
pathway of circulation between the heart and the rest of the body except the lungs
T Wave
in ECG last wave of cardiac cycle corresponding to repolarization
Tricuspid Valve
valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
Umbilical
relating to or resembling the umbilicus
Vein
a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries toward the heart
Ventricle
a chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium and pumps it to the arteries
Venule
a minute vein continuous with a capillary