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Breast Ultrasound Review
Terms in this set (60)
A rare form of cancer that appears as an eczematous eruption over the nipple and/or areola. An underlying invasive or non-invasive ductal carcinoma has been reported in 85-95% cases.
A subcategory of IDC, a slow growing, stellate tumor made up of tube-shaped structures called tubules. Appears on Mammo as small (usually less than 1cm) spiulcated radiopacity. Rarely invades lymph nodes and have a favorable prognosis.
Clinical symptoms of this malignant cancer may include itching, tingling, or redness in the nipple and/or areola, flaking, crusty, or thickened skin on or around the nipple, a flattened nipple and/or discharge from the nipple that may be yellowish or bloody.
Benign, complex, sclerosing lesion that is generally asymptomatic. A single or multiple areas of adenosis around a fibro-elastic center that contains cellular proliferation and hyperplasia. May contain areas of malignancy. Occasionally associated with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, DCIS, LCIS or Tubular Carcinoma.
The best elevational focus currently available is ________, which should be the minimum used for breast ultrasound.
The following controls can be used to increase amplification of an ultrasound image:
Contralateral Posterior Oblique
Patient position used for breast scanning include:
The main breast duct and nipple
The two handed technique is used to image:
The classification used today for supernumery breast tissue is:
When there is glandular tissue but no nipple or areola, it is called:
Internal thoracic artery and vein
The best anatomical landmark for localizing parasternal lymph nodes are the:
Muscle / Skin
What does a water density indicate?
Also known as a fibroadenolipoma.
A breast lesion caused from a benign proliferation of fibrous, glandular, and fatty tissue surrounded by a thin capsule of connective tissue. All components are found in normal breast tissue. Lesions can be any size but are typically large at presentation.
Internal Thoracic Artery and small branches of the Anterior Intercostal Arteries
Blood is supplied to the medial half of the breast by the:
Thoracocromial branch of the Axillary Artery and Lateral Mammary branches of the Lateral Thoracic Artery.
Blood is supplied to the lateral half of the breast by the:
Internal Thoracic Vein to the SVC.
Blood is drained from the medial half of the breast by the:
Lateral Thoracic Vein, to the Axillary Vein into the SVC.
Blood is drained from the lateral half of the breast by the:
Clear nipple discharge
Discharge associated with underlying malignancy.
Mastitis associated with lactation.
Mastitis caused by trauma of infection.
Sonographic appearance of breast tissue in a lactating patient is best characterized as:
What mass can develop secondary to traumatic fat necrosis?
What benign pathology is also referred to as the "swiss cheese disease"?
Large, painless, hard breast mass. Appears as ill defined, shadowing masses that may appear spiculated. May be multicentric or bilateral. Clinically indistinguishable from breast cancer. Primarily found in diabetic patients, including men.
Referring to the dense stroma seen in cancers that produce abundant connective tissue, or reactive fibrosis.
The malignant counterpart of the benign fibroadenoma.
An uncommon breast malignancy that develops in younger women, grows rapidly, and has a lower incidence of lymph involvement is called:
Usually large, fleshy masses that are well-circumscribed and moveable, tend to occur in younger women, and can easily be misdiagnosed as fibroadenomas.
Which site is most common for breast cancer to spread via the bloodstream.
Lobular Carcinoma in Situ
Form of breast cancer that generally affects premenopausal women, is often bilateral, is often multicentric, and is often difficult to detect a distinct tumor using sonography and mammography.
Breast tumor most commonly found in postmenopausal patients.
When primary breast cancer metastasizes, it usually spreads in the following order:
Breast cancer tumor that can be described as soft, lobulated, and compressible.
Cancer tumor that is usually complex in appearance, and does not display shadowing or reactive fibrosis.
The rarest cancer of the breast is:
Which primary malignancy in males would most likely metastasize to the breast?
Family History of Breast Cancer
Risk factors for male breast cancer include:
Inflammatory Breast Cancer
Uncommon form of breast cancer that is a common manifestation of invasive ductal carcinoma. Poor prognosis
Breast imaging that requires the retrograde injection of a radiopaque contrast material into the lactiferous ducts is called:
Complications of breast augmentation are:
Saline Filled Single Lumen
The most common implant in current use is:
A complication in which a thin rim of scar tissue forms around a breast implant within weeks of implantation is called:
When a fibrous capsule gets harder and begins to progressively tighten around the breast implant called:
Which type of evaluation of more conclusive, cytological and histological?
Fine Needle Aspiration
Implant rupture would be less likely with which form of tissue sampling?
Advanced Breast Biopsy Instrumentation (ABBI)
Which type of biopsy requires mammographic stereotactic guidance?
Advanced Breast Biopsy Instrumentation (ABBI)
Which procedure carries the best chance for tumor localization?
Invasive Papillary Carcinoma
Invasive papillary carcinomas of the breast are rare, accounting for less than 1-3%. Most frequently postmenopausal women. Most often DCIS is also present. Solid lesion with well defined borders and fingerling projections, called papules. Usually does not involve lymph nodes; therefore, has a better prognosis than other breast cancers.
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC), sometimes called Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma
The most common type of breast cancer. About 80% of all breast cancers. Two-thirds of women are 55 or older when they are diagnosed.
Medullary Ductal Carcinoma
This type of cancer is rare and only 3-5% of breast cancers. The tumor usually shows up on a mammogram and it does not always feel like a lump; rather it can feel like a spongy change of breast tissue.
Mucinous Ductal Carcinoma
This occurs when cancer cells within the breast produce mucous, which also contains breast cancer cells, and the cells and mucous combine to form a tumor. Pure mucinous ductal carcinoma carries a better prognosis than more common types of IDCs
Papillary Ductal Carcinoma
This cancer looks like tiny fingers under the microscope. It is only in rare cases that this kind of cancer becomes invasive. Common among women age 50 and older, this kind of cancer is treated like DCIS, despite being an invasive cancer.
Tubular Ductal Carcinoma
This is a rare diagnosis of IDC, making up only two percent of diagnoses of breast cancer. More common in women older than 50 and are usually small, estrogen-receptor positive cancers, which means they respond to hormones. The name comes from how the cancer looks under the microscope; like hundreds of tiny tubes.
Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC)
This type accounts for about 10% of invasive breast cancers. Starts in the lobules or milk glands and then spreads. Most women feel a thickening instead of a lump in their breast.
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC)
Only about 1 to 3% of all women diagnosed with this rare form of breast cancer. This rare cancer is invasive and may begin in either the ducts or the lobules. It is aggressive and progresses rapidly. In its early stages, it can be mistaken for infection because the symptoms are similar. However, most infections will respond to antibiotics, while cancer will not.
Alternate term used to describe Cooper's ligaments.
Opening of the Montgomery Gland
What is the percentage of breast cancers detected by mammography in women who are asymptomatic?
The most important view of mammography. Covers the axilla, inframammary fold, pectoralis muscle, up to the chest wall. Breast is compressed from medial to lateral. Gives an idea of whether a mass is superior or inferior to the nipple.
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