2nd in development life cycle • Determine and document features and functions, approve requirements o Less expensive to change decisions in this phase
adding more people makes the project harder • Ex - in the context of RFID
longest path through the network of activities • Used to determine the earliest data a project can be finished • Each task has to depend on each other • Determines how long project will take
3rd in development life cycle • Develop and evaluate alternatives • Make prototype
Diseconomies of scale
adding more people makes project slower
convert business activity from old system to new • Types: pilot, phased, parallel, plunge
small changes to a project • Deploy project but then need more handheld readers • Smaller scale
fixing or adapting system • Track system failures and enhancements o Enhancements prioritized based on business decisions
new system runs in parallel with old during testing • Expensive and time consuming • Ex) live in both houses
organization implements entire system on single, limited unit • If system fails, only affects limited boundary • Reduces exposure • Ex) only dad move in to house
Plunge (Big Bang) installation
direct installation • Install new system and discontinue old • No back up - most risky • Ex) move in to house
Product Quality Assurance (PQA
testing - Testing specialists
Project Management Professional (PMP)
Professional Certification • Requires several years of actual project experience
scope creep • Must be managed • Ex) when people continually ask to add small things, must say no • Can become a problem and users keep changing their minds
System analysis and design
process of creating and maintaining IS • Involves all 5 IS components: hardware, software, data, procedures, people • Requires more technical expertise, business knowledge & management skill
when converting to a new system • Pilot, phased, parallel, plunge
System definition phase
related to interactive design process • Inception phase → have to decide to start the project, Netflix and streaming, get leaders behind it and support it with resources • What are the existing technology involved • Documenting how things work, defining old system
sequence of actions that users take when employing system • Both normal and incorrect actions considered • Labor intensive
Work breakdown structure (WBS)
hierarchy of tasks required to complete project • Good at estimating task durations
Why is systems development difficult and risky?
• Difficult to determine requirements and often change • Schedule and budget change with scope • Technology changes • Diseconomies of scale • Issues: scope, resources, schedule → can only have two
What are the 5 phases of the development life cycle? What tasks are performed during each stage?
Inception Phase o Define system goals o Determine project scope o Assess feasibility of project Analysis Phase o Determine and document features and functions o Approve requirements o Less expensive to change system in this phase Design Phase o Develop and evaluate alternatives o Hardware and software designs o Data model converted to database design o Procedures designed for BI system o Job descriptions created for users and operations personnel Construction Phase o Systems built o System testing done o Users must be converted to new system Production/ Implementation Phase o Convert business activity from old system to new Pilot, phased, parallel, plunge
What issues must a project team consider when determining the feasibility of a project?
• Cost - compared to similar projects • Schedule - estimate time and impact • Technology - current IT meet IS needs • Organizational - fit with company culture, customs, charter, law
What is the user's role in the requirements phase? What happens if users do not participate in this phase?
User's role o Taking responsibility and for requirements o Responsibility for ensuring complete and accurate requirements o Must manage requirements creep o Define test conditions If users don't participate o Only implement technology if is good for organization Need to interview users to see how they do their jobs o Must ask users to know how to make it better
What are the tradeoffs associated with systems development? Be sure to understand the tradeoffs b/w scope, schedule (time), and resources (triple constraint)
Tradeoffs exist in any project against time and costs o Can only reduce time so much o Adding people → diseconomies of scale o Increase time = increase costs Only two - good, fast or cheap
What is the PMBOK Guide for Project Management? What is a Project Management Professional?
PMBOK: project management body of knowledge o Collection of best practices for project manager Professional: certification that certifies that you have academic knowledge as well as real world application in that knowledge o PMI institute - go through class, take exam
How does a work breakdown structure drive project management
Helps to see when each task should be completed in order to get project done on time
Be able to determine a critical path if given a map of project tasks with estimated durations
Task dependencies compressed as much as poSsible Tasks may be moved to non-critical paths to shorten critical path Example: building a house Move landscape to when foundation is being poured, saves a week
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IS 4410 Chapter 10 (Business process and information systems development)