78 terms



Terms in this set (...)

performance task
is any learning activity or assessment that asks students to perform to demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and proficiency. It presents a situation that calls for learners to apply their learning in context.
diagnostic assessment
provides instructors with information about student's prior knowledge and misconceptions before beginning a learning activity.
analytic scoring
calls for teachers to provide feedback on each of the noted criteria for a writing assignment.
authentic assessment
a form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills.
qualitative assessment
collects data that does not lend itself to quantitative methods but rather to interpretive criteria.
quantitative assessment
collects data that can be analyzed using quantitative methods.
embedded assessment
a means of gathering information about student learning that is integrated into the teaching-learning process. Results can be used to assess individual student performance or they can be aggregated to provide information about the course or program. It can be formative or summative, quantitative or qualitative. Example: as part of a course, expecting each senior to complete a research paper that is graded for content and style, but is also assessed for advanced ability to locate and evaluate Web-based information.
portfolio assessment
is an evaluation tool used to document student learning through a series of student-developed artifacts. Considered a form of authentic assessment, it offers an alternative or an addition to traditional methods of grading and high stakes exams.
criterion-referenced assessments
are designed to measure student performance against a fixed set of predetermined criteria or learning standards (concise, written descriptions of what students are expected to know and be able to do at a specific stage of their education).
usually offer a yes/no format in relation to student demonstration of specific criteria. This is similar to a light switch; the light is either on or off. They may be used to record observations of an individual, a group or a whole class.
the wide variety of methods or tools that educators use to evaluate, measure, and document the academic readiness, learning progress, skill acquisition, or educational needs of students.
procedures used to determine whether the subject (i.e. student) meets preset criteria, such as qualifying for special education services. This uses assessment (remember that an assessment may be a test) to make a determination of qualification in accordance with predetermined criteria.
testing (test)
a method to determine a student's ability to complete certain tasks or demonstrate mastery of a skill or knowledge of content. Some types would be multiple choice tests or a weekly spelling test. While it is commonly used interchangeably with an assessment or even evaluation, it can be distinguished by the fact that a test is one form of an assessment.
alternative assessment
These types of assessments focus on what students can do without emphasizing their weaknesses, especially in test-taking skills. These assessments give a holistic picture of a student's abilities and highlight where further improvement is needed. They give the student a chance to demonstrate the depth and scope of learning without being limited to narrow questions or make-or-break tests. Often, alternative assessments are utilized for students with learning disabilities who have difficulties performing on standardized tests.
are broad, general statements of what the program, course, or activity intends to accomplish. They describe what you want students to learn. They provide a framework for determining the more specific educational objectives of a program, and should be consistent with the mission of the program and the mission of the institution.
high-stakes test
any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts, most commonly for the purpose of accountability.
The process of obtaining a numerical description of the degree to which an individual possesses a particular characteristic. It answers the question, "How much?":
* A test is used to gather information.
* That information is presented in the form of measurement.
* That measurement is then used to make an evaluation.
standard (learning)
describe educational objectives, what students should have learned by the end of a course or grade level. They do not describe any particular teaching practice, curriculum, or assessment method.
benchmark (assessments)
are short tests administered throughout the school year that provide teachers immediate feedback on how students are meeting academic standards. Regular use of benchmark assessments is seen by many as a tool to measure student growth and design curriculum to meet individual learning needs.
taxonomy (Bloom's)
is a classification system used to define and distinguish different levels of human cognition: thinking, learning, and understanding. Teachers use this taxonomy to inform or guide the development of assessments, curriculum and instructional methods such as questioning strategies.
describe the knowledge and skills you want students to acquire by the end of a lesson
domains of learning
There are three main domains of learning: cognitive (thinking), affective (emotion/feeling), and psychomotor (physical/kinesthetic).
Each domain has a taxonomy related to it.
a set of reasons or a logical basis for a course of action or a particular belief.
learning strategy
when students independently select the appropriate instructional strategies and use them effectively to accomplish tasks or meet goals.
competency (ies)
*Observable abilities, skills, knowledge, motivations or traits defined in terms of behaviors needed for success which describe goals.
They can be described as follows:
*Students advance to higher level work at their own pace
*Learning expands beyond the classroom
*Students are encouraged to learn outside the classroom
*Teachers assess skills and concepts in multiple contexts and ways
*Focused on outcomes
*Explicit performance of standards
*Verbs to be acted upon, expressed to facilitate evaluation
the way things turn out. A consequence.
Behaviorist approach
explains behavior in terms of learned responses to predictable patterns of environmental stimuli.
Communicative approach
or Communicative Language Teaching Approach (CLT) is based on the idea that learning a language is based on communicating real meaning. This way CLT takes real life situations such as buying groceries or preparing for school, as a basis for learning the target language.
Monitor model (hypothesis)
when we are able to use what we have learned (in Krashen's sense) about the rules of a language and self-correcting our language output. It is possible in the correction of written work. It is much more difficult when speaking.
Cognitive approach
is a relatively modern approach to human behaviour that focuses on how we think, with the belief that such thought processes affect the way in which we behave.
subtractive bilingualism
when learning a second language interferes with the learning of a first language. The second language replaces the first language.
additive bilingualism
when learning a second language does not interfere with the learning of a first language. Both languages are developed.
the practice of alternating between two or more languages or varieties of language in conversation.
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
known as the SIOP® Model offers an empirically-validated approach to teaching that helps prepare all students—especially English learners -to become college and career ready.
refers to a variety of instructional techniques used to move students progressively toward stronger understanding and, ultimately, greater independence in the learning process.
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Linguistically and Culturally Diverse (LCD)
an educational term used by the U.S. Department of Education to define children enrolled in educational programs who are either non-English-proficient (NEP) or limited-English-proficient (LEP).
standard scores
an individual test score expressed as the deviation from the mean score of the group in units of standard deviation
Grade Equivalent Score
represents the grade level and month of the typical (median) score for students.
is a system for ensuring tasks and goals are completed.
Limited English Proficient (LEP)
a term used in the United States that refers to a person who is not fluent in the English language, often because it is not their native language.
Language Enriched Pupil (LEP)
students who are unable to communicate fluently or learn effectively in English, who often come from non-English-speaking homes and backgrounds, and who typically require specialized or modified instruction in both the English language and in their academic courses.
a way for children to learn concepts in a developmentally appropriate, hands-on and an experiencing way.
The speed at which someone or something moves. Also, the speed at which something happens
adequate yearly progress (AYP)
Measurement defined by the United States federal No Child Left Behind Act that allows the U.S. Department of Education to determine how every public school and school district in the country is performing academically according to results on standardized tests.
highly qualified teacher
is one which holds, at least, a Bachelor's degree from a four-year institution. Fully certificated or licensed by the state. Demonstrates competence in each core academic subject area in which the teacher teaches.
proficiency (language)
is the ability of an individual to speak or perform in an acquired language
grace period
is a period immediately after the deadline for an obligation during which a late fee, or other action that would have been taken as a result of failing to meet the deadline, is waived provided that the obligation is satisfied during the grace period.
assessment specifications
is a planning document that specifies the type of assessment and type of assessment items used to measure student achievement
Title I school and funds
are schools with percentages of students from low-income families of at least 40 percent may use Title I funds, along with other Federal, State, and local funds, to operate a "schoolwide program" to upgrade the instructional program for the whole school.
Title II funds
are intended to increase the number of high-quality, effective teachers and principals. Funds can be used for a variety of purposes, from recruiting and retaining teachers to reducing class sizes, or providing professional development.
formative assessment
a range of formal and informal assessment procedures conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment.
standardized test
is a type of test that (1) requires all test takers to answer the same questions, or a selection of questions from common bank of questions, in the same way, and that (2) is scored in a "standard" or consistent manner, which makes it possible to compare the relative performance of individual students or groups of students.
culture shock
a sense of confusion and uncertainty sometimes with feelings of anxiety that may affect people exposed to an alien culture or environment without adequate preparation.
honeymoon phase
a stage of the Second Language Acquisition Process. During this stage, newcomers are excited about their new lives. Everything is wonderful and they are having a great time learning about their environment.
a guide listing specific criteria for grading or scoring academic papers, projects, or tests.
rating scale
a set of categories designed to elicit information about a quantitative or a qualitative attribute.
a principle or standard by which something may be judged or decided
grade level equivalent
indicates the readability of the text by grade. It is a reflection of the grade level at which a student reading on grade could read the book independently or perform accordingly.
cloze assessment
Consisting of a portion of text with certain words removed (cloze text), where the participant is asked to replace the missing words
multiple intelligences (MI)
The theory of multiple intelligences was developed in 1983 by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University. It suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited. Instead, Dr. Gardner proposes eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults.
a characteristic or ability already present in a person or animal when they are born.
teacher centered lessons/activities
when students put all of their focus on the teacher. The teacher talks, while the students exclusively listen. During activities, students work alone, and collaboration is discouraged.
student centered lessons/activities
when a classroom operates with student-centered instruction, students and instructors share the focus. Instead of listening to the teacher exclusively, students and teachers interact equally. Group work is encouraged, and students learn to collaborate and communicate with one another.
bell curve
is the most common type of distribution for a variable. It comes from the fact that the graph used to depict a normal distribution consisting of a bell-shaped line. The bell curve is also known as a normal distribution.
are a measure used in statistics indicating the value below which a given percentage of observations in a group of observations fall.
change how a student learns the material
change what a student is taught or expected to learn.
is the ability to read and write: knowledge that relates to a specified subject
intended to repair gaps in students' basic knowledge.
diagnostic (assessment)
has a placement function and so takes place before instruction. It may be used to determine the presence of prerequisite skills or to determine the student's prior level. Diagnostic evaluation may also be used to determine unknown causes of learning difficulties.
is the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores. Av.erage
is a measure of center in a set of numerical data. The median of a list of values is the value appearing at the center of a sorted version of the list - or the mean of the two central values if the list contains an even number of values.
is the value that occurs most frequently in a given data set.
affective behaviors
behavior that is primarily aimed at producing a desired result, like attempting to understand the needs of another party and attempting to satisfy those needs.
anecdotal records
narrative accounts of observed student behavior or performance.
prejudice or predisposition toward one side of a subject or issue.
capacity for learning; natural ability