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AP Bio Ch.12
Adapted from: Urry, L., Cain, M., Wasserman, S., Minorsky, P., Jackson, R., & Reece, J. (2014). Campbell biology in focus. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. (ISBN# 0321813804)
Terms in this set (42)
A chromosomal aberration in which one or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number.
A dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in cells of female mammals, representing a highly condensed, inactivated X chromosome.
The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis.
A chart of a chromosome that locates genes with respect to chromosomal features distinguishable in a microscope.
(1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage. (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene.
A human genetic disease caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21; characterized by mental retardation and heart and respiratory defects.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
A human/male genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.
An aberration in chromosome structure due to fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome, such that a portion of a chromosome is duplicated.
An ordered list of genetic loci (genes or other genetic markers) along a chromosome.
General term for the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent. if two genes are linked on the same chromosome, this is parental combination. These genes will be transmitted as a unit and will not sort indapendeantly. during meiosis crossing over occurs and these genes can become unlinked. the farther te two genes the more often they come unlinked. Genetic recombination is the process during which linked genses become uninked
A phenomenon in which expression of an allele in offspring depends on whether the allele is inherited from the male or female parent. so if the chromosome that this gene that codes for this phenotype is located is expressed only if donated by one parent or the other.
A human genetic disease caused by a X-linked recessive allele resulting in the absence of one or more blood-clotting proteins; characterized by excessive bleeding following injury.
An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from reattachment of a chromosomal fragment in a reverse orientation to the chromosome from which it originated.
A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes.
Genes located close enough together on a chromosome that they tend to be inherited together.
A unit of measurement of the distance between genes. One map unit is equivalent to a 1% recombination frequency.
Referring to a cell that has only one copy of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two.
An error in meiosis or mitosis in which members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate properly from each other in meiosis during anaphase 1 or anaphase II
An offspring with a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes; also refers to the phenotype itself.
A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets. It is the result of an accident of cell division.
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the parents; also refers to the phenotype itself.
A gene Located on a sex chromosome (usually the X chromosome), resulting in A distinctive pattern of inheritance.
An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from attachment of a chromosomal fragment to a nonhomologous chromosome.
Referring to a diploid cell that has three copies of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two.
An individual with the phenotype most commonly observed in natural populations; also refers to the phenotype itself.
chromosome theory of inheritence
mendelian genes have specific loci along chromosomes and it is the chromosomes that undergo segregation and independant assortment
law of segragation
the two alleles for each gene separate during gamete formation.
Law of indapendant assortment
alleles of the genes on non homologous chromosomes assort indapendantly during gamete foundation.
genes with multiple phenotypic effects
a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus
normal phenotypes, common in fly population
traits alternative to wild type
a gene on the Y chromosome required for the development of testes (sex-determining region of Y)
in the absence of SRY the gonads develop into overies
describing the phenominon that men have an X and Y chromosome meaning that they only have one locus for specific genes on the X or Y so these genes cannot be hetero or homozygous so they are called hemizygous
Duchenne Muscular Distrophy
An X linked disorder resulting in the progressive weakening of the muscles and loss of coordination
absence of key muscle protein: dystrophin
X linked ressesive disorded defined by the absence of one or more proteins required for blood clotting
X linked trait, ressesive gene
genes located near each other on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses
- sterile man
- small testes
- some female body charactersitics
- normal sex development
- no sundrome
trisonomy of the X chromosome
- slightly taller than average
- at risk for learning disabilities
Mosonomy X- turner syndrome
- sterile/ no mature sex organs
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