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42 terms

Bioethics Final Vocab

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Gamete
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
Homologous
term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
Gene
a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain
Chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
Autosome
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Karyotype
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs
Allele
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits
Sex Chromosome
a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual
Haploid
an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
Meiosis
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Recombinant
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the parents.
Fertilization
the joining of a sperm cell and an egg cell
Mitosis
in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
Diploid
a cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
Gene Locus
specific location of a gene on a chromosome
Somatic Cell
any of the cells of a plant or animal except the reproductive cells
Genome
complete set of an organism's genetic material
Mutation
an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration
Enzyme
complex protein that is produced by cells and acts as a catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
Protein
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
Amino Acid
basic building blocks of protein molecules
Eugenics
the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)
Transformation
modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
Antibiotic Selection
scientists use antibiotic resistance genes as genetic makers to identify which bacteria were transformed
Bt Crops
transgenic crops that contain a gene from the bacterial species Bacillus thuringiensis that allows a natural insecticide to be produced in the crop.
Genetic Marker
gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don't
Restriction Enzyme
enzyme that cuts nucleic acid at specific restriction sites and produces restriction fragments
Round Up Ready Crops
Crops that have been genetically engineered to be resistant to herbicides, so that it can be blanket spread across a field and only kill the weeds
Bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
Plasmid
small ring of DNA found in a bacterial cell that is used as a biological vector
Bacteria
single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes
Sticky Ends
the uneven ends of a double-stranded DNA molecule that has been cut with a restriction enzyme
Biotechnology
The manipulation of a living organism to produce a different useful product
Genetic Engineering
process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
Gene Therapy
the replacement of a defective gene with a normal version
Gene Enhancement
attempts to improve a healthy gene
Germline Engineering
altering the genetic make up of specific types of somatic cells within an individual, changes in the sperm, egg, or early embryo where changes will be passed down to offspring and may allow changes in phenotype
Somatic Cell Engineering
Changes in somatic cells, difficult to change in phenotype, changes genetic make up
PGD
a single cell is removed from the 8 cell embryo and tested for possible disorders
IVF
a technique in which eggs are surgically removed from a woman and fertilized with sperm in the laboratory and then put into a women's uterus
GMO
organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques
Transgenic Organism
an organism that contains genes from other organisms