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term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits
in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
complex protein that is produced by cells and acts as a catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)
scientists use antibiotic resistance genes as genetic makers to identify which bacteria were transformed
transgenic crops that contain a gene from the bacterial species Bacillus thuringiensis that allows a natural insecticide to be produced in the crop.
gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don't
enzyme that cuts nucleic acid at specific restriction sites and produces restriction fragments
Round Up Ready Crops
Crops that have been genetically engineered to be resistant to herbicides, so that it can be blanket spread across a field and only kill the weeds
the uneven ends of a double-stranded DNA molecule that has been cut with a restriction enzyme
altering the genetic make up of specific types of somatic cells within an individual, changes in the sperm, egg, or early embryo where changes will be passed down to offspring and may allow changes in phenotype
Somatic Cell Engineering
Changes in somatic cells, difficult to change in phenotype, changes genetic make up
a technique in which eggs are surgically removed from a woman and fertilized with sperm in the laboratory and then put into a women's uterus
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