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Anatomy Lecture 1
Terms in this set (85)
What is Anatomy?
What is Physiology?
Function of structure
Name the Sub types of Anatomy?
Microscopic Anatomy and Gross Anatomy
Structures that can't be viewed by unaided eye
Examines structure and relationships of large body parts
Similarities and differences in anatomy of different species
Changes in structure within an individual from conception through maturity
Developmental changes before birth
Examines all structures in particular region of body as 1 complete movement. (ex bones, muscles)
Superficial anatomic markings and internal body structures as they relate to skin covering them
Examines anatomical change from disease
Relationships among internal structures visualized by MRI etc
Anatomic landmarks used before and after surgery
Name the levels of organization in the human body
Chemical level (2 or more atoms create a molecule)
Cellular level (smallest living structure)
Tissue Level (similar cells perform specific functions)
Organ level (2 or more tissue types that work togethe to form specific complex functions)
Organ system level (related organs work together)
Organismal level (all systems function independently)
Name the 11 body systems and give an example from each
Endocrine (Pituitary gland)
Lymphatic (lymph nodes)
Muscular (Biceps brachii)
List the major body cavities
Thoracic Cavity Abdominopelvic Cavity
What two cavities make up the Thoracic cavity?
Pleural cavity Pericardial cavity
What two cavities make up the Abdominopelvic cavity?
Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity
What is the median space in the Thoracic cavity
What does the Abdominopelvic cavity make up
What makes up the Posterior aspect?
How does the coronal plane divide the body
Anterior and posterior parts (one has chest, other has back)
How does the transverse plane divide the body
Cuts perpendicularly along the long axis of the body (superior and inferior portions)
How does the midsagittal plane divide the body?
It cuts through vertically and divides into left and right halves
What three types of movements occur at a synovial joint?
What is a uniaxial joint movement?
The bone moves in just one plane or axis
What is a biaxial joint movement?
The bone moves in two planes or axes
What is a multiaxial joint?
The bone moves in multiple planes or axes
List the characteristics used to classify tissues into one of the four major tissue types
Presence of extracellular matrix
Describe the characteristics shared by epithelial tissue
Composed almost entirely of cells
Lack blood vessels
Explain how epithelial tissue is named
Based on number of cell layers and cell shape
What does simple squamous look like
One layer of flattened cells
What does simple cuboidal look like
One layer of cells about as tall as they are wide
What does simple columnar look like
one layer of cells that are taller than they are wide
What does stratified squamous keratinized look like
Many layers thick cells in surface layers are dead and flat
What does stratified squamous look like
Many layers thick
what does stratified cuboidal look like
Two of more layers of cells, apical layer of cells is cuboidal shaped
what does stratified columnar look like
Two or more layers of cells. Cells in apical layer are columnar shaped
Explain the difference between loose and dense connective tissue.
Dense has tightly packed collagen
Loose has loosely arranged protein fibers
Example of loose connective tissue
Areolar (surrounds nerves)
Example of dense connective issue
What is areolar connective tissue
Fibers loosely organized (surrounds nerves and blood vessels)
What is Dense Regular connective tissue
Collagen bundles packed in parallel bundles (found in ligaments/tendons)
3 types of cartilage
Found at end of nose
Numerous coarse visible collage fibers (Herring bone)
Found in menisci of knee
Name the cells for bone.
Name the cells for blood
Describe the different types of bone based on shape
Epiphysis is rounded end
Hollow center in diaphysis (of long bone)
What does an osteoblast do?
Builds bone (secretes osteoid)
What does an osteobclast do?
Phagocytic cell involved in bone resorption
What is an osteoprogenitor cell? Where is it?
Stem cells located in periosteum/endosteum
What is an osteocyte?
Maintains bone matrix and detects stress
Explain the organization of the osteon.
Describe the features that characterize spongy and compact bone
Spongy bone doesn't have osteons
Spongy bone is stronger
Compact bone has osteons
What makes up compact bone
Lamella (layers going around)
Osteocyte (within lucunae)
Describe endochondral bone growth
Start with a Hyaline cartilage model of the body
The cartilage degenerates leaving an open cavity
Blood vessels enter and bring osteoprofenitor cells
Primary ossification site in diaphysis
Secondary ossification site in epiphyses
Irregular (Facial bones)
Describe Appositional bone growth
Diameter increases. Has to thicken as bones get thicker and heavier. Addition of osteoblasts directly beneath periosteum
Describe Interstitial bone growth
Growth in length due to epiphyseal plates
Goes from Zone of resting cartilage to
zone of proliferating cartilage to
zone of hypertrophic cartilage to
zone of calcified cartilage
Explain how origin and insertion relate to a muscle
Origin end doesn't move
Insertion end moves
During contraction Insertion moves closer to origin
Name the layers of connective tissue that occur in and around a skeletal muscle.
Explain the organization of a skeletal muscle from superficial to deep.
Describe the microscopic structure on a skeletal muscle fiber (cell)
Explain the arrangement of contractile filamentts into sarcomeres and the parts of a sarcomere
Explain the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction
Describe how the nervous system and muscular system work together forming motor units and neuromuscular junctions
Describe the 3 types of skeletal muscle fibers in terms of their metabolism and twitch rate.
Differentiate between the two types of smooth muscle
Differentiate between cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle in terms of their microscopic anatomical features.
Head and neck ch 136
What are the two types of smooth muscle
Multiunit and Visceral
descrive multiunit smooth muscles
operate as separate units (found in iris and blood vessels)
Describe visceral muscles
Sheets of close fibers that act together (produce rhythmic contractions called peristalsis)
Cell shape of cardiac muscles
Cell shape of smooth muscles
fusiform shaped (football)
Cell shape of skeletal muscles
How many nuclei does the cardiac cell have
How many nuclei does the smooth muscle cell have
How many nuclei oes the skeletal muscle cell have
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